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XiOrar^ 

of tbe 

Tlimver0it^ of Mi0con0in 



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University of Wisconsin Library 
nanus or ipt Theses 



Unpublished theses submitted for the Uaster^s and 
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▲ STUDY OF KDOK-BIlEIHG IB VOUB POFDLIR HiOiZIHES 

by 
LUOT E. R06BBS 



Iheiis Submitted for the Segre* of 
lUSTER OF ABSS 



USITEBSITI 01* WZSCONSIH 
1921 



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413816 

m '6 1334 



liBLB 07 CQHIBITS 



Appendix 



Page 



Introduotien 

Chapter I 1 

HoCLUBB'S lULGlZIHE » 1902 - 1906 

Chapter II 21 

ETESXBOOT'S HiGAZIBB — 1904- 1906 

Chapter III 66 

COSliOPOLITAfi lULGAZIBE — 1901- 1910 

Chapter lY 96 

AMERICJLH lUGAZIlIE — 1906- 1911 

ConolTision 121 



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Introduotlon 



▲n introduotlon to a paper on muok- raking can best 

be inade by an explanation of the tezm and ita signifioanoe* 

An admirable exposition of muck-raking was made by President 

Rooseyelt in an address which he d^liyered on April 14, 1906, 

at the laying of the oomer*stone of the office building of 

the House of Representatiyes. I shall quote from him: 

In Bunyan's ''Pilgrim's Progress" you may recall the des- 
cription of the Man with the Muckrake, the man who could 
look no way but downward, with the muckrake in his hand; 
who was offered a celestial crown for his muckrake; but 
who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was of- 
fered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the 
floor^ 

In^Pilgrim's Progress" the Man with the Muckrake is set 
forth as the example of him whose vision is fixed on car- 
nal instead of on spiritual things. Yet he also typi- 
fies the man who in this life consistently refuses to 
see aught that is lofty, and fixes his eyes with solemn 
intentness only on that which is Tile and debasing. How, 
it is very necessary that we should not flinch from seeing 
what is Tile and debasing. There is filth on the floor, 
and it must be scraped up with the muckrake; and there 
are times and places where this sertloe is the most needed 
of all the serrioes that can be performed. But Ihe man 
who never does anything else, lAio neyer thinks or speaks 
or writes save of his feats with the muck-rake, speedily 
becoines, not a help to society, not an incitement to good, 
but one of the most potent forces for evil. 

There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many 
and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the 
sternest war upon them. There should be relentless ex- 
posure of and attack upon every evil man whether politi- 
cian or business man, every evil practice, whether in 
politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a 
benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the 
platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merci- 



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Introduotlon — b 

1688 eeyorlty ma)ce8 8ueh attack, provided always that he 
in his tuzn remembers that the attaok is of use only if it 
is absolutely trathftd. The liar is no idiit better than 
the thief, and if his mendaoity takes the foim of slander, 
he may be worse than most thieyes. It putt a preniVB 
upon Icnavery untruthfully to attack an honest man, or even 
with hysterical exaggeration to assail a bad man with un- 
truth. An epidemic of indisOriminate assault upon ohar> 
acter does not good, but yery great harm. The soul of 
every scoundrel is gladdened whenever an honest man is 
assailed, or even when a scoundrel is untruthfully as- 
sailed. 

At the risk of repetition let me say again that my plea is, 
not for immunity to but for the most unsparing exposure 
of the politician who betrays his trust, of the big business 
man who makes or spends his fortune in illegitimate or cor- 
rupt ways. There should be a resolute effort to hunt 
every such man out of the position he has disgraced. Ex- 
pose the crime, and hunt down -Qie crimina).; but remeinber 
that even in the case of crime, if it is attacked in senaa- 
tional, lurid, and untruthful fashion, the attack may do 
more damage to the public mind than the crime itself. It 
is because I feel that there should be no rest in the end- 
less war against the forces of evil that I ask that the war 
be conducted with sanity as well as with resolution. The 
men with the muok-i«kes are often indispensable to the 
well-being of society; but <»ily if they know when to stop 
taking the muck, and to look upward to the celestial crown 
above them, to the crown of worthy endaavor. There are 
beautiful things above and . round about them; and if they 
gradually grow to feel that the whole world is nothing but 
muck, their power of usefulness is gone. If the whole 
picture is painted black there remains no hue whereby to 
single out the rascals for distinotioa from their fellows. 
Such painting finally induces a kind of moral color-blind- 
ness; and people affected by it come to the conclusion that 
no man is really black, and no man really lAiite, but they 
are all gray. In other words, they neither believe in 
the tiuth of the attack, nor in the honesty of the man who 
is attacking; they frow as suspioious of the accusation 
as of the offense; it becomes well-nigh hopeless to stir 
them either to wrath against wrong-doing or to entiiusiasm 
for what is right; and such a mental attitude in the public 
gives hope to every knave, and is the despair of honest 
men. ( 1 } 

After this explanation of the usefulness of muck- 
raking and the policy to pursue in it. President Roosevelt 

1. The Koosevelt folic7 Koosevelt vol. ll JSew lork 1909 
p. 367-371 



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Intlroluotion •• o 

points out the true Justification of maok*raklng and main- 
tains that if falls in its purpose if it does not aohieye ac- 
tion: 

At this moment we are passing through a period of great un- 
rest — social, political, and industrial unrest. It is 
of the utmost importance for our future that this should proTS 
to he not the unrest of mere rebelliousness against life^ 
of mere dissatisfaction with the ineyitable inequality of 
conditions, but the unrest of a resolute and eager ambition 
to secure the betterment of the indlTidual and the nationl 
So far as this moyement of agitation throughout the coun- 
try takes the form of a fierce discontent with eyil, of a 
determination to punish the authors of evil, whether in 
industry or politics, the feeling is to be heartily wel- 
comed as a sign of healthy life« 

If, on the other hand, it turns into a mere crusade of 
appetite against appetite, of a contest between the brutal 
greed of the "haye-nots** and the brutal greed of the ''hayes,** 
then it has no significance for good, but only for eTil« 
If it seeks to establish a line of cleayage, not along the 
line which diyides good men from bad, but along that other 
line, running at right angles thereto, which ditldes those 
who are well off from those who are less well off, then it 
will be fraught with immeasurable harm to the body politic. (1) 

The following paragrapH is perhaps the most potent of 

all: 

It is a priiae necessity that if the present unrest is to 
result in pezmanent good the emotion shall be translated in- 
to action, and that the action shall be marked by honesty, 
sanity, and self-restraint. There is mighty little good 
in a mexe spasm of reform. The reform that counts is that 
which comes through steady, continuous growth; Tiolent emo- 
tionalism leads to exhaustion. (2) 

In the pages of this thesis I have tried to interpret 

tine most important presentations of a muck-raking nature in Ta- 

rious popular magasines, in accordance with the principles laid 

down by President Hooseyelt. 



1. The Roosevelt Policy Roosevelt vol. II p. 373»4 

2. Ibid. p. 374 Sew York 1909 



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Chapter Qn« 
MoOIUHB'3 lUGiSIHB 

Mo01ur«*8 Magazine ma •stabllshad in 1893 « as an 
outgrowth of S«S» HoClura's nawspapar syndicate^ and was a rapid 
suooass d\La to the aggress lya policy of its editor* It liad 
an enviable list of contributors and its ciroulation grew quite 
rapidly, although not so fast as that of the Cosmopolitan or 
Everybody's* It was rather a new idea that the editor put 
into praotioe of having the principal articles of each issue 
written by members of the staff rather than by outside contrib-* 
utors^ 

This magazine was one of the first to take up the 
policy of muckraking and early attained national fame by its 
exposure of graft. Probably its greatest claim to fame is 
''The History of the Standard Oil Company/ which was written by 
Hiss Ida M« Tarbell, a member of its editorial staff for several 
years. The idea of muckraking was an accidental one, accord- 
ing to Mr* McClure, who has said on this subject: 

It came from no formulated plan to attack existing insti- 
tutions, but was the result of merely taking vp in the mag-* 
azine some of the problems that were beginning to interest 
the people a little before the newspapers and the other mag- 
azines took them up* * • • Vy desire to handla such fuestions 
in the magazine came about, I think, largely from my frequent 
trips abroad* (1(> 

1. My Autobiography S.3. McClure p* 253 

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2 

Slmaltanaously with the beginning of the Standard 

Oil series in MoClure's^ began the articles by Lincoln Stef- 

fens on municipal misgoyernment* Steffens went to St. Louis 

and prepared an artiole on the reyelaticns brought out at the 

trials that Folk had carried on against grafters. Two arti* 

cles were published on that city. Sext came the article on 

**The Shame of Minneapolis ^'^ which dealt with material that 

had been brought out in courts or by grand Juries. Four more 

cities were discussed in this series, which was instrumental 

in the first awakening of the American people to municipal 

administration problems. 

The origin of the histoxy of the Standard Oil Company 

shows how incidentally the whole idea of muckraking came into 

being and how gradually it developed. Mr. McClure gives a 

clear account of it; 

At the time of the World's Fair there was established the 
Armour Institute of Technology under the charge of Dr« 
Gunsaulus^ the great preacher. I sent Arthur Warren to 
Chicago to write for McClure 'a an article on the Amour 
Institute and on Mr« Armour. That gave me the idea of 
having articles written on the greatest American business 
achievements and methods of the Standard Oil "^ "^ "^ "^^ 
planned three or four articles » about February « 1697. 
Trusts were then a common subject. V/e decided to hand- 
le the trust question by taking one, giving its history, 
effects and tendencies. 

The Standard Oil trust company aided Miss Tarbell in ob- 
taining material — her other sources of information 
were records of Congressional investigations, of state 
investigations, and the testimony of Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. 
Archbold, and other officers of the company given in suits 
brou^t against the company in different states. Her 
study lasted five years, and enabled her to produce a 
history of unimpeachable accuracy. (l) 

1, My AutobiograpHy S'^ST McCiure p. 2F0 

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3 

Ml88 Tarbell liad spent nearly three years on this work 
before the first chapter of it was printed. She had 
read end digested almost a library of inaterial^ and had 
travelled and seen a number of people. When she wrote 
this "History of the Standard Oil" she was probably the 
greatest living expert on that subjeot. (1) 

An editorial announoement preceding the publication 

of the series says in part: 

MoClure*8 Kagazint has always endeavored to deal in a 
fresh and stimulating way with all important public 
questions. It proposes in its coming volumes to take 
up the trust. It will begin its work by the story 
of the growth of a particular organization. It se- 
lects this method-^presentation in order that its read- 
ers may have a clear and succinct notion of the pro- 
cesses by which a particular industry passes from the 
control of the man to that of the one or the few — 
that they may see the methods by which competition 
ends in combination. The organization selected for 
this object lesson in trusts is the Standard Oil com- 
pany. The reasons for this choice are obvious. It 
is the popular typical trust* It was the first in 
the field, and it has furnished the methods, the char- 
ter, and the traditions for its followers. It is^ 
too^ the most perfectly developed trust in existence; 
that it, it satisfies most nearly the trust ideal of 
entire control of the commodity in which it deals. 
Its vast profits have forced its officers into various 
allied intwrests^ such as railroads, and into new com- 
binations, thus giving them doubled power in carrying 
out their own projects* It has led in the struggle 
against legislation directed against combinations. 
Its power in State and federal government, in the press, 
in the college, in the pulpit is generally recognized. 
The perfection of the organization of the Standard, 
the ability and daring with which it has carried out 
its projects » make it the pre-eminent trust of the 
world — > the one whose story is best fitted to illumi- 
nate the subject of combinations of capital. [ 

It is a story of daring action^ of bold projects ably 
realized, of heart-breaking tragedies — a story in 
which the stran^re new conditions of business life in 
America are illustrated 4s in no other of which we know. (2) 



1. My Autobiograpny STSTTTSTJIure p. 250 

2. Announcement McClure's vol. 19 p. 589 Oct. 1902 



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4 

Hl88 Tarbell ims particularly well equipped for suoh an 
undertaking* She ivas bom in Erie oounty, Fennsylivania , on 
Boyember 5» 1867^ and was graduated tT(m Allegheny oollege, 
Meadville^ Fa«, with the degree of bachelor of arts in 1880. 
She reoeiyed the master's degree in 1883, the degree of L.E.D. 
in 1909 « and the degree of doctor of laws in 1915 from Alle- 
gheny college » and the degree of L«H«D« from Knox college also 
in 1909« Before she went to France to study^ she was associ- 
ate editor of The Chataquan from 1883 to 1891« In 1906 she 
Joined the staff of the American magasine^ where she remained 
until 1915. She is a member of the American Historical Asso-* 
elation and of the English Society of Women Journalists, and 

is the author of seyeral historical works. Her history of 

1 
the Standard Oil company was published in two yolumes in 1904 « 

A sketch of her qualifications was published in McCiure's 

preliminary to the publication of her history. 

Miss Tarlrell, who has spent the greater part of two years 
in gathering and studying ori|;tnal materials for a history 
of the Standard Oil company, first gained prominence as the 
author of a series of articles on the life of Lincoln, as 
remarkable for the bringing out of hitherto unknown and yet 
most important facts as for the sympathetic insight into 
the human side of the great president. Miss Tarbell did 
not stumble into historical work. After an arduous and 
valuable editorial experience, deciding to fallow out her 
instincts and tastes and take the writing of biography and 
history as her life work, she spent three years at the Paris 
Sorbonne studying to make herself master of the tools of 
her profession. It was there she wrote her first histor- 
ical work, the "Life of Madame Holand,** which regains to 
this day the most penetrating study of this typical woman 



1. Tarbell, Ida Minerva Who's Who in America p. 2664 
vol. I Chicago 1918-19 



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of the Prenoh Revolution. It l8» therefore, with a mind 
thoroughly trained for historical research that Mias Tar- 
bell l)egan work, upon the history of the Standard Oil com- 
pany, one of the greatest and most far- reaching develop- 
ments of our American civiliaation. In this field she 
is in a large degree a pioneer. It was planned to begin 
the series last year, but the difficulty of collecting and 
digesting the facts from the thousAnds of printed pages of 
testimony made it very necessary to postpone publication 
of the articles for another year. The bewildering mass of , 
documents on the subject only yield up their significance 
as the result of a tremendous amount of painstaking reading 
and study. As Miss Tarbell passed most of her early life 
in the oil regions, she has a special qualification for this 
work; the atmosphere and fhe feeling, the human and social 
significance of the oil business she imbibed with the very 
air she breathed. (1) 

The value of such a history, apart from its historical 

si^ificance, lies in the fact that it demonstrates the necessity 

of fair play in business, if this country is to develop Its bus- 

Z 
iness on lines of decency and dignity. 

"The History of the Standard Oil Company" is divided into 
two parts, the first containing nine chapters, each a separate 
article on a particular phase of the history, and tiie second, 
eight chapters. lart I covers a period of ten years, 1872 to 
1682, and deals with the maneuvers by which the Standard Oil 
trust, with a capital of «)70,000,000, was developed from the 
Standard Oil company with a capitalization of ^1,000,000. It 
shows how Bookefeller created a trust through wresting special 
and illegal rebates on transportation. 

Part II carries the narrative down to the present time 
(about 1903), and treats of such important topics as criminal 
underselling, the right of unlimited competition, and the price 



\. Editorial announcement McClure's vol. 19 p. 588 Oct. 1902 
2. Ibid. " vol. 22 p. 108 Hov. 1903 



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6 

of oil. It takes up the first reslstanoe to Mr. Roolcefeller's 

authority, following the great defeat of the Oil Regions in 

1880 with the formation of the trust in 1882. It is a history 

of the twenty years war sinoe that tijne and the time of publioa* 

tion, of the fight whioh oentered about (a) transportation^ not 

by rail^ but by pipe-*lines to the seaboard, (b) underselling 

1 
competitor^ and (e) the prioe of oil* 

Publioation of the history began in MoOlure's Magazine in 
Boyember, 1902^ and oonoluded in October, 1904, running through 
a period of about two years. fiever was a history so full of 
romance, adventure, and combat. Written in Miss Tarbell's ad- 
mirable style ^ it reads like a tale of the days of old, when 
the giants and the pygmies battled. 

Chapter I ^entitled "The Birth of an Industry/ was pub-* 
lished in fioyember, 1902, and deals with the early discovery of 
petroleum, of the big men in the early oil business « and the 
progress of oommunities in the oil rggion. Chapter II, "The 
Rise of the Standard Oil company/ whioh was published in De- 
cember of the same year, relates the building up of the Rocke* 
feller firm^ the question of rebates, and organization of the 
Standard Oil company. In chapter III« "The Oil War of 1872," 
(JPebruary, 1903) the uprising of the oil regions against the 
company is described. 

Chapter IV, "An Unholy Alliance," which appeared in March, 
is the history of the second attempt to bring about a combina-* 

1. Editorial announcement McClure's vol. 21 p. ZZ7 

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7 
tion to control the oil business, and relates facts never before 
revealed. "The Price of Trust Building," (April. 1903) Is the 
next chapter, and deals with the alliance with the railroad men 
and the "insolent eq,uallzatlon of rates." The remaining chap- 
ters In Part I are as follows: "The Defeat of the Pennsylvania," 
(June, 1903), "The Crisis of 1878," (July. 1903), "The Great 
Consummation" (August, 1903), and "The Real Greatness of the 
Standard," (September, 1903), 

The chapter headings in Part II of the series speak for 
themselves: "The War on the Hebate," (December, 1903), "The 
Fight for the Seaboard Pipe-lines," (January, 1904). "Cutting to 
Kill," (February, 1904). "The Troubles of a Trust" (March. 19Q4) , 
"The Breaking Up of the Trust," (May, 1904), "A Modem War for 
Independence, " (June. 1904), "The Price of Oil" (September, 1904), 
and the conclusion of the hifttory, (October, 1904). 

One of the earliest articles of so-called muckraking was 
that of Bay Stannard Baker's on "What the United St^el Corporation 
Heally Is, and How It Works," published in liovember, 1901. Mr. 
Baker describes the growth of the corpoz«.tlon, how it came into 
being, from ten other companies, its organization, manner of 
distribution, sales, markets, efficiency, and similar subjects. 
This article is analytical and describes the organization, how- 
ever, rather than points out the evils caused by its organization 
and growth. 

Mr. Baker, who later became a well-known "muck-xaker." was 
bom in Lansing. Mich., on April 17, 1870. He received the de- 
gree of bachelor of science from the Michigan Agricultural col- 



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8 
lege In 1889 and the degree of dootor of laws In 1917 and pur- 
sued a partial law course and studies In literature at the Unl- 
Terslty of Michigan. He was a reporter and sub-^edltor on the 
Chicago Record from 1692*7; managing editor of HoClure*8 syndi- 
cate from 1897^8; associate editor of McClure's Magazine from 
1899 to 1905; one of the editors of the American Magazine from 

1906 to 1915 • He Is the author of several books and writes 

1 
also under the nom de plume of David Grayson. 

The very earliest articles of an Investigative nature, 

however 9 were those of Joslah Flynt, iftio wrote a series of three 

entitled, "In the World of Graft," taking up graft In cities as 

seen by denizens of the underworld. The nature of the series 

is best described by the editor's note at the beginning of the 

first article: 

Just one year ago, throat an arrangement made with McClure*s 
Magazine, Mr. Joslah Flynt undertook an investigation of the 
criminal classes in several of the leading cities of the Uni- 
ted States. These studies were made, not to gratify an idle 
curiosity, but in the hope that they will aid the movement 
now in progress to better the government of our cities. For 
fifteen years Mr. Flynt has spent much of his time among the 
vagrant and criminal classes of this country and Europe, liv- 
ing with them under their own conditions. It is a mere co- 
incidence that these articles are published just as Chicago 
and Hew Yozk are arousing to the need of reform. It should 
be remembered that Mr. Flynt writes of what he saw in the 
spring of 1900, but practically the same conditions exist 
today. (8) 

The purpose of the articles, to quote Mr. Flynt himself, 

was to get ''the under-world* s criticism of the upper world's 

system of municipal defense against crlme< 



m 



1. Bay Stannard Baker Who's Who in America vol. Z p. 144 

Chicago 1918-19 

2. In the World of 9raft McClure's vol. 16 p. 327 Feb. 1901 



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"Chicago, an Honest City," is the first article, appear- 
ing In Februaiy, 1901, In nhioh Mr. Flynt gives an account of 
how Chicago is regarded by the imderworld, how the city is called 
''open" because it permits thieves and tramps in its limits, and 
how the municipal authorities bargain with crooks. 

The second in the series is "Tork, a Dishonest City," Mr. 
Flynt summarizes his investigations of Dew Yorik: as follows: "As 
criticised by the professional tramp and thief, liew Torlc's munic- 
ipal defense against crime seems to be faulty in the following 
particulars: Practically the entire municipal government is at 
the beclc and call 6f Tannany, and Tammany suborlinates the city's 
Interests to its own. Hew York is "open," because it pleases 
and pays the Tammany Powers that Bule to have it so." Mr. Flynt 

concludes that the voters want the city to be "open," or they 

1 
would change their votes. 

"Boston, A Plain-Clothes Man's Town," is the third and last 

of the series. Mr. Flynt says "Goodness is lazy in this town, 

2 
and that's the reason that badness is active." He asserts that 

the public is to blame for illegal Joints and crookedness in the 

3 
police department. 

Following this series is a dramatic exposure of evils in 

St. Louis, showing the depth of financial corruption in that city, 

in an article entitled, "Tweed Days in St. Louis," or "Joseph W. 



1. In the World of Graft Flynt MoClure's. April, 1901 vol. 16 

p/ 576 

£. Ibid. June, 1901 vol. 17 p. 121 

3. Ibid. June, 1901 vol. 17 p. lEl 



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Folk's Single-handed Exposure of Cormptlon, High and Low," 
written by Claude H. Wetmore and. Lincoln Steffene and published 
in October, 1902. The fight of folk against bribery, cor- 
ruption in contracts, and so on, is described in vivid fashion. 
The bankers, brokers, corporation officers, and business men 
of the city are named as responsible for the corruption in the 
city. 

Various aspects o^ the labor situation are to be seen in 
some of the articles published in UcClure's Magazine late in 
1902 and early in 1903. Among them were "The Coal Strike," 
(December, 1902) by John Mitchell, president of the United 
Mine Workers of America, discussing the miners' side of the 
question, "The Right to Work," or "The Story of the Bon-Strik- 
ing Miners," (January, 1903), by Ray Stannard Baker, showing 
the hardships suffered by non-union men at the hands of union 
men. and "Children of the Coal Shadow," (February, 1903) by 
Francis H, Siohols, depicting child labor in the coal regions 
with its attendant evils, children's xinlons, and other phases. 

The year 1903 marked a distinct period in the policy of 

McClxLre*s in that a striking series of articles by Lincoln 

Steffens on mxuaicipal corruption and some vivid side«lights on 

the labor situation are presented from time to time. An edi-* 

to rial announcement in the issue for January, 1903 , states the 

policy clearly: 

It is a coincidence that the January MoClure's is such 
an arraignment of American character as should make every 



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one of us stop and tlilnk««.« • • The leading article. The 
Shame of Minneapolis/^ might haTe been called "The American 
Contempt of Law«" That title could well have served for 
the current chapter of Miss Tafbell*s History of Standard Oil. 
And It would have fitted perfectly Mr* Baker's "The Rl^t to 
Work." All together, these articles come pretty near show- 
ing how universal is this danger ous^^ trait of ours. Miss Tar- 
bell has our capitalists conspiring among themselves, delib- 
erately, shrewdly, upon legal advice, to break the law so far 
as It restrained them, and to misuse It to restrain others 
who were In their way. Mr« Baker shows labor, the ancient 
enemy of capital, and the chief complainant of the trusts' 
unlawful acts. Itself conmlttlng and excusing crimes. And In 
"The Shame of Minneapolis," we see the administration of a 
city employing criminals to commit crimes for the profit of 
elected officials, while the cltlsens -* Americans of good 
stock and more than average culture, and honest, healthy^ 
Scmndlnavlans-stood by complacent and unalarmed. 

Capitalists, worklngmen, politicians, citizens -- all break- 
ing the law or letting It be broken. Who Is lift to uphold 
It? The lawyers? Some of the best lawyers In this country 
are hired, not to go Into court to defend cases, but to ad- 
vise corporations and business flxms how they can get around 
the law without too great a risk of punishment. The Judges? 
foo many of tiiem so respect the laws that for some "error" 
or quibble they restore to office and liberty men convicted 
on evidence overwhelmingly convincing to common sense. The 
churches? We know of one^ an ancient and wealth establish- 
ment, which had to be compelled by a Tammany holdover health 
officer to put Its tenements In santtaopy condition* The 
colleges? They do not understand. 

There Is no one left; none but all of us — we are all doing 
our worst and making the public pay. The public Is the peo- 
ple. We forget that we all are the people; that while each 
of us In his group can shove off on the rest the bill of to- 
day, the debt Is only postponed; the rest are passing It on 
back to us. We have to pay in the end, everyone of us. And 
In the end the axm total of our debt will be our liberty. (1) 

In September, 1903, more In the series of labor articles 
by Ray Xtannard Baker, appear. The first Is "Capital azid Labor 
Hunt Together, or Chicago the Victim of the Hew Industrial Con- 
spiracy." Mr# Baker relates the monopolising of Ihe coal dellw- 



1. Editorial announcement McClure's vol. 20 p. 336 Jan. 1903 



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12 
ery of the lAiole olty by the coal teamsters' tmlon and ooal 
team owners* association* He points out the combinations 
among practically all industries in Chicago, each industry war- 
ring against others, and the unorganized public as the scape- 

1 
goat* 

"The Trust's Hew Tool — the Labor Boss/ follows in Go- 
vember of the same year. This article la the story of Sam 
Parks, boss of the builders In Hew York City, who so effective- 
ly organized the ironmongers, and tooiV of the George A* Fuller 

Construction company, a building trust, which was backed by the 

2 
Standard Oil company* 

"The Lone Fighter" is a more or less general article by 
Hr* Baker pointing out that the conditions revealed in his pre- 
vious articles can only be done away with by Cghtlng* He says, 

"If this republic is saved, it must be saved by individual ef- 

3 
fort." 

Early in the neit year an article on the union in San 

Francisco was published, "A Ooxner in Labor, What Is Happening 

in San Francisco Where Unionism Holds Undisputed Sway*" Mr* 

Baker shows how business-like unionism in that city soaght to 

control the market, how it has a labor monopoly, forces up prl- 

4 
ces, and crushes competition* 



1* Capital and Labor Hunt Together Baker McClure*s vol*21 p*451 

2* The Trust's Bew Tool Baker McClure*s vol* 22 p. 30 

3* The Lone Fighter , " " vol. 22 p. 196 Deo. 1903 

4. A Comer in Labor ? " vol* 22 p/ 366 Feb* 1904 



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The labor problem dragged into politics is portrayed in 
*'The Heign of Lawlessness, or Anarchy and Despotism in Colo* 
rado,** by Br* Balcer« He says that the people of the state 

are paying because both sides have broken the law, the corpor- 

1 
ations, the imions^ legiiilature — all to blame# The atti- 
tude of the employers toward the growing strength of labor is 
brought 6ut in an article published in the summer of 1904, 
"Organized Capital Challenges Organized Labor, or the New Em- 
ployers* Association Movement*" This movement of the employ- 
era is due, first, says Mr. Baker, to the sudden recognition 
and fear of the real power of the new unionism, and secondly, 
to excesses of a false power — an inflated unionism. The 
employers are divided into two groups, according to Mr* Baker, 

those who propose to fight the unions and those who propose to 
2 

deal with them* 

Parallel with Mr* Baker's articles was a series extending 

over more than a year of articles on municipal and state cor« 

ruption by Lincoln Steffens* Mr* Steffens is a particularly 

able writer and has been described as a man who stands at the 

head either of a class of literary men who possess a nose for 

3 
news or of newspaper men who have a turn for literature* 

Mr* Steffens was born in San Francisco on April 6, 1866* 

He received the degree of bachelor of philosophy from the Uni- 



1* The Beign of Lawlessness Baker McClure*s vol* £3 p* 43 

May 1904 
2* Organized Capital Challenges Organized Labor Baker McClure*s 

vol* 23 p* 279 Huly 1904 
3* Editorial announcement McClure's vol* 25 p* 107 Nov* 1904 



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Terslty of Vallfomia in 1889, and studied philosophy In the 
Tinlyersltles of Berlin, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Paris, and Sor> 
bonne, 1889 to 1892, He was reporter and assistant oitj edi- 
tor of the New 7ox3c Evening Post from 1892-8, olty editor of 
the Bew Yorlc Commeroial Advertiser, 1898-1902, managing editor 

of MoClure*8 from 1902-6, and assooiate editor of the Amerloan 

1 
Magazine and Everybody's from 1906-11. 

His series on mttnicipal oorruption began in January, 1903, 
when "The Shame of Minneapolis or the Besoue and Hedemptlon of 
A Olty That Was Sold Out,** was published. This article is a 
vivid portrayal of graft and corruption in polltlos in Minneap- 
olis, showing how the mayor and all of the officials were in 
alliance with the oriminals o^ the city and how prosecution 
cleaned up the city. The keynote is police corruption. 

This article is followed by "The Shamelessness of St. Lou- 
is, or Something Bew in the History of American Municipal Dem- 
ocracy,'^ an account of the unique position of that city, which 
is unashamed of its coiruption, in that the conviction of bood- 

lers leaves the felons still in control, the system Intaet, and 

2 
the people mere spectators. 

Pittsburgh irifk Its police and financial oorruption is the 
next city to be taken up by Mr. Steffens. It is the type of 
city that has tried to be free and failed. Mr. Steffens dis- 
cusses ^'^ristopher L. Magee's political ring, his alliance with 



1. Steffens, Lincoln Who's Who in America p. 2676 1918 

2. Shameless nrtEf. of St. Louis Steffens McClure's 

vol. 20 p. 546 March, 1903 



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William ?lixm, how the oity broke them^ only to haTO Tom S« 

Bigelow become boss. The one-man ring imder Magee controlled 

1 
everything. 

Another city in Pennsylvania was also discussed by Mr. 
Steffens, Philadelphia, "^the wurst governed city in the conn- 
try," in an article entitled ^^Philadelphia: Cor rapt and Content- 
ed.** The Philadelphians were virtually disfranchised, ac- 
cording to Mr. Steffens, in that '^the political machine con- 
trols the whole process of voting and practises fraud at every 

stage.** About 15^000 persons were employed by the machine 

2 
to represent nearly a majority of the city voters. 

"Chicago: Half Free and Fighting On," an analysis of po- 
litical conditions in that city, relating the fight of Ihe Mu-^ 
nicipal Voters* league in cleaning up the town, (Oct* 19013), 
and "New Yoxk: Sood Government in Danger," discussing the re- 
election of Seth Low as mayor, representative of good govern- 
ment, complete this partioliiar series of Mr. Steffens (llov. 
1903). 

In Aprils 1904, Mr. Steffens began a second series much 
the same in purpose and contents, entitled /TBnemies of the 
Republic." As he himself puts it, "my gropings into mis- 
government of cities have drawn me out of pcQ.itics into busi- 
ness, and out of the cities into the state." A^d in another 
place he says that municipal corruption and reform is only 
part — it is local. "It isn*t political corrxqption. It's 



1. Pittsburgh Steffens vol. 21 p. 24 May 1903 

Z. Philadelphia: Corrupt and Contented Steffens vol. 21 p. 249 

July 1903 
3. Enemies of the Republic Steffens vol.22 p. W- i^Til 1904 ^e 



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16 
oorruptlon. The oorruptlon of our Amerloan politios 18 our 
Amerloan oorruptlon^ politioal, but financial and industrial, 
too." 

His first article deals with Missouri, where the political 
leaders are selling out the state to corrupt business men. 
The lobbyists run the legislature. "Illinois: 4 Trinmph of 
Public Opinion," "Wisconsin: a State Where the People Have Re- 
stored BepresentatiTS Government and the Story of Governor La- 
Follette," "Rhode Island: a State for Sale — What Senator Al*» 
drich Represents -» a Business lian's Government Founded Upon 
the Corruption of the People Themselves," "Hew Jersey: a Trai- 
tor State," "Ohio: a Tale of Two Cities" (Cleveland and Cincin- 
nati), are included in the series, appearing successively in 
the August, and October, 1904, and February, April, and Jxay 
issues in 1905. In each state the problem is a little 

different, but in each some form of corruption and obstacle to 
true government is found. 

In the case^ of Hew Jersey, the results of Mr. Steffens' 
investigations revealed such startling conditions that the ed- 
itor's note appended to the article is worth quoting: 

Every citizen who cares for his country, his state, or his 
city, should know the facts in this article. When we began 
to investigate Hew Jersey we thought we knew something of 
political and commercial corruption. We had charted some 
of its submerged depths but here we have found ourselves at 
times off soundings and the leadsman has reported no bottom. 
This is the longest of Mr. Steffens' articles and the most 
important; yes, and the most interesting; this unrelenting 
story of sordid things. And if the reader feels as we do. 



1. Enemies of the Republic Steffens McClure*s vol. 22 p. 587 
April 1904 



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how Intelligent, how sure the eorruption of the state has 
heen, let 12ie truth serve to arouse a courage equal to the 
task ahead. (1) 

Mr. Steffens Incorporates tills strllcing statement in his 
article: "Jersey has been bought and sold both at home and 
abroad; the state is owned and governed today by a syndicate 
representing capitalists of liewarlc, Philadelphia, Hew York, Lon- 
don, and Amsterdam. The offense which c<Hanands our special at- 
tention, however, and lifts this state into national distinc- 

2 
tion is this: Hew Jer«ey is selling out the rest of us." 

Following his series on "Enemies of the Bepublic," Mr. 
Steffens in the following year, 1906, wrote two articles on 
slightly different aspects of the corruption question, that of 
"cleaning up politics." The first of these was "A Servant of 
God and the People — itory of Mark Pagan, Mayor of Jersey City," 
(January, 1906) telling. of Pagan the Christian mayor who made 
Jersey City "pretty," and the second was "The Gentleman from Es- 
sex — the Story of Everett Colby, a Rich Young Van in Politics: 
What He Discovered from the Inside; and What He Did About It," 

(February, 1906) relating how Colby fou^t "to restore govem- 

3 
ment of the people to the people." These virtually complete 

Mr. Steffens' work in this particlar field, and it was about this 

time that he transferred to the staff of the Amerioan Magaslne. - 

In the fall of 1905, Mr. Baker began a series of articles, 

entitled "The Bailroads on Trial," lOiioh ran until the middle of 

the next summer. In this series he took up the investigation of 

1. flew Jersey: a Traitor State steffens McClure's vol. 24 p. 649 

April 1906 

2. Ibid, vol. 24 p. 649 April 1905 

3. The Gentleman from Essex Steffens MoClure's vol. 26 p. 433 

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the charges against the railroads that (a) they do not observe 
Justice toward the people ~ Individual shippers are said to 
have received rebates — (b) that they disobey the law^ and (c) 
that they smothered competition and created monopolies. Part I, 
"The Railroad Bate/ was published In Movember, 1905; Part II, 
"Hallroad Rebates/ In December of that year; Part III, "The Pri- 
vate Car and the Beef Trust/ In January, 1906; Part I¥, "Private 
Cars and the Prult Industry/ In February; Part V, "How Railroads 
Make Public Opinion/ in March. As a concluding article in the 
series Mr. Baker wrote on "The Unreliability of Official Docu- 
ments/ showing how even these documents were not always reliable 
as sources of Information. In June, 1906, he wrote "The Way of 
a Railroad with a Town," the story of the struggle of Danville, 
Va., with the Southern Railway. 

Following close upon the conclusion of Mr. Baker's series 
came another series by Burton J. Hendricks, on "The Story of Life 
Insurance," which ran through several numbers of MoClure's, and 
dealt with the development of life insurance, and the careers of 
the men who have most conspicuously contributed to its growth. 
Mr« Hendricks despribes the work of the great men who made the 
American life Insurance system one of our greatest claims to na- 
tional distinction; and the wozk of the corrupt men ibo have done 
so much to degrade it. He relates the growth of two schools of 
life Insurance pystems under Ellsur Wright, to whom everything 
that is sound in life Insurance today can be traced and under 



1. Unreliability of Official Documents Baker McCiure's 
vol. 26 p. 67E April 1906 

2- Way of a Railroad with a Town Baker vol. EV^lifli^SyQune 1906 



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Henry B, Hyde^ to whom every thing luisound and unjust oan be 

1 
traced* 

The series nas written In siz parts, entitled respectively, 
"Surplus, the Basis of Corruption," published in May, 1906; 
"The Pioneer," in June; "The Founder of the Equitable," in July; 
"The Great Tontine Gamble," in August; "The Thirty Years' War," 
in September; and "The Raid on the Surplus," in Octob er. 

Among other important articles of a muckraking nature dur- 
ing the next few years were: "The Story of Montana," by C^P* 
Connolly in August, 1906; "The Confession and Autobiography of 
Harry Orchard," following the sensational Meyer and Haywood trial, 
which began in July, 1907, and ran for several months; "Bees and 
the City Liquor Problem," by George ICibbe Turner, in September, 
1909; and "The Organised Criminals of Hew York City" by General 
Bihgham in Bovember, 1909 • Another important series was "The 
Masters of Capital in America" written by Turner and John Moody « 

About this time, McClure's distinctive muckraking policy 
seems to end, or rather to merge into an investigative spirit, 
constructive rather than destructive, praising rather than deplor- 
ing^ In other words, having devoted its powerful and influential 
editorial energies to delving into the muck of the earth, it gra- 
dually turned its editorial searchlight into the projects of 
American civilization which deserve laudatory comment. 

At present McClure's Magazine has lost its old leadership, 
although it is still prominent with a good reputation • It has 
lost some of its old popularity along with its loss in aggressive- 



ly Editorial announcement vol. 26 p. B75 April 1906 

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ness* More about the decline ol mixokraking will be found 
In the conoluBlon to this thesis • 



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Chapter II 
EVEHYBQDY'3 MAGAZIBE 

Everybody's Magazine^ which was brought into being in 1899 
by John Wanamaker^ is among the oldest and best Imown of the 
popular magazines. It was bought by the Hidgeway* Thayer compa* 
ny in 1903 and soon after branohed into muckralcing with much ^wim 
and wigor." Its campaign in the literature of exposure is epi- 
tomized in "Frenzied Finance/ a lurid series on the Standard Oil 
company and one of its greatest projects. Amalgamated Copper, 
which still lingers in the minds of people. This famous series 
was written by Thomas W« Lawson, financier, who was at one time 
connected with the Standard Oil company. It ran for two years, 
from July, 1904, to February, 1906, and "made" Everybody's. 

The magazine's circulation Jiunped enormously and the pub- 
lishers could scarcely meet the demand for copies because the 
series was so popjilar and widely read. In its November, 1904, 
news-stand sale, the magazine reached the largest circulation of 
any magazine, and it was reaching out for a million subscribers. 
By the end of 1904 it had 600,000 readers. At this time it was 

selling for ten cents a copy. The magazine never attained a 

1 
circulation of more than 700,000, however. 



1. Thesis W^L. Hinabuck 1911 U. of W, p. 48 

(21) 



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The foreword to the series^ "Frenzied Plnanoe/' in the 

July, 1904, issue of Everybody's cnntains the germ of the series 

and its motiTation: 

The series will set forth the story of Amalgamated Copper 
and the "* system," of whioh it is the most flagrant example. 
""This system" is a prooess or a device for the incubation of 
wealth from the people's savings in the banks, trust, and in- 
surance companies, and the public ftmds. Through its workings 
during the last twenty years there has grown up in this coun* 
try a set of colossal corporations lli« which unmeasured success 
and oontinual immunity from punishment have bred an insolent 
disregard of law, of common morality, and of public and private 
right, together with the grim detemination to hold on to, at 
all hazards, the great possessions they have gulped or captured* 
It is the same "system" which has taken from the millions of 
people billions of dollars, and given them over to a score oi^ 
two of men with power to use and enjoy them as absolutely as 
though these billions had been earned dollar by dollar by the 
labor of their bodies and minds« Yet in telling the story of 
Amalgamated, the most brazen and voracious maw of this "system^" 
I desire it understood that I take no issue with men; it is 

with a principle I am ccncemed The "system" is the 

thing at fault, and it is the "system" that must be rectified. (K) 

Then Mr. Lawson, in preparation for the avalanche of ques- 
tions which he knew would be showered upon him, proceeds to state 
at some length and with great care^ his motive for writing the 
series: 

In asking for the serious, earnest consideration of the pub- 
lic, I shall be honest in giving to them my (Qualifications, 
my motives, and my desires for writing this narrative. For 
thirty^ four years I have been actively connected with matters 
financial. As banker, broker, and corpox^tion man, I have 
from the vantage point of one who actually handled the things 
he studied, studied the causes which created the conditions 
which made possible the system which produced the Amalgamated 
affair. In my thirty- four years of business experience I 

have seen the great fortunes, which are the mo*ite power of the 
system referred to, come out of the far West as specks upon 
the financial horizon, and grow and grow as they travelled 
Eastward, until in their length, breadth and thickness, they 
obscured the rising sun. At short range I have seen the gi- 
ant money machine put together; I have touched elbows with 
the men who made it, as they fitted this wheel and grooved 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol. 11 qp^tfeecitelyTQl^^l^ 



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£3 
that gear^ while at the same time I broke bread pnd slept 
with the everyday people who, with the industry of the ant, 
and the patience of the spider, toiled to pile in the pen- 
nies, the niokels, and the dimes which have kept the 'sys- 
tem's* hopper full. (1) 

Mr. Lawson is careful to state again and again that 

he is not violating business confidence or misusing knoir* 

ledge in his frank revelations concerning the "system." 

Amalgamated was the service the system asked of me. It 
WAS created because of my work. It was largely because 
of my efforts that its foundation was successfully laid. 
It was very largely -because of fdiat I stood for and the 
public's confidence in fulfilment of the promises I made 
that the public invested their savings to an e:Ktent of 
over ^200,000,000; and it was almost wholly because of 
the broken promises and the trickery of the creators of 
the ''system^^ that the public lost the enozmous sums they 
did. (3) 

Mr. Lawson gives the dire results of the Amalgamated 

coup as bringing losses amounting to more than a hundred 

4 
million of dollars, 30 suicides, and 20 convictions. These 

almost unbelievable disasters are partly responsible for his 

desire, to inform the public: 

My motives for writing the Story of Amalgamated are 
manifold: I have unwittingly been made the instrument 
by which thousands upon thousands of investors in Amer- 
ica and Europe have been plundered. I wish them to 
know my position as to the past, that they ma; acquit 
me of intentional wrong-doing; as to the present that 
they may know that I am using all my poviiers to right 
tht wrongs that have been committed, and as to the fu- 
ture that they may see how I propose to compel restitu* 
tion. 

My desire in writing the Story of Amalgamated, while 
tinged perhaps with hatred for end retenge against 
the "system" as a whole and some of its votaries, is 

1. Jfrenzled JJ'inance Lawson Everybody's vol.ll. p.l July 1904 

2. Ibid. p. 4 

3. Ibid. n. 6 

4. Ibid. p. 2 



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24 

more truly pervaded with a strong oonviotlon that the most 
effeotlve way to educate the public to realize the evils 
of which such affairs as the Amalgamated are the direct 
result. Is to expose before them the brutal facts as to the 
conception, birth, and nursery-breeding of this, the fore- 
most of all the unsavory offspring of the "system.'' Tnus 
they may learn It Is within their power to destroy the 
brood already In existence and render Impossible the crea- 
tion of their like. 

In doing so I shall describe such parts of the general 
structure as will place my readers, especially those unfa- 
miliar with Its more complicated conditions. In a mental 
state to comprehend the methods by which the savings they 
thlnlc are safely guarded In the banics, trust and Insurance 
companies, are so manipulated by the votaries of frenzied 
finance as to be In ooiiStant Jeopardy. I will show them 
that -- — there Is a tangible, complicated, yet simple 
trlclc of financial legerdemain, operated 24 hours In each 
day of the year, and which the press, the boolcs, the poli- 
ticians and the statesmen never touch upon — a trick by 
means of which the savings of the people and the public 
funds of the government, whether In the national banks, 
savings banks, trust or Insurance companies, are always 
at the absolute service and mercy of the voMrles of fren- 
zied finance, (l) 

A prophecy of the contents of his astounding revela- 
tions Is briefly touched upon In the next paragraphs: 

The ltd fore In the course of my Story of Amalgamated will 
come a few kindergarten pictures of how the necessaries 
and luxuries of the people are "Iricorporated;" how the ev- 
idences of corporation ownership are manufactured; of the 
Individuals nho ''manufactured'' them: of the Individuals 
who control or unmake their values; of the meeting-place 
of these Individuals, within and without the stock exchan- 
ges; of some of l^e corporations and of some of the signs 
and tokens of corporation ownership; of some of the his- 
tories; of some of the doings, and of some of their con- 
templated doings. (2) 

Because of the Intricate nature of his task, Mr. Law- 
son felt compelled to begin ^t the very beginning of his sub- 
ject, to explain matters of financial Juggling from time to 



1. Frenzied ii^lnance Lawson Everybody's vol.11 p. 6 July 1904 

2. Ibid, p^ 7 



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time, and to approach his real toplo very slowly in order to 
be thoroughly imderstood by his readers « Conseauently he 
started in to treat the Bay State Gas intricacies and trick- 
eries ^ in which in a certain sense Amalgamated had its beings 
He devotes a chapter to ""one of the most picturesquely noto- 
rious characters of the age^ John Edward 0' Sullivan Addidcs, 

1 
of Delaware.** The main part of his narrative deals with 

the '^two real heads of Standard Oil and Amalgamated, Mr, Hen- 
ry H. Bopers and Mr* William Rocicefeller; and with the big- 
gest financial Institution of America, if not of the world/ 
the National City Bank of Hew York and its head and dominat- 
ing spirit, James 3tlllman.** 

Another okapter relates the conception and formation 
of the United States Metals Selling ^om^ny, intended prac- 
tically to control the copper industrial world "without com- 
ing within the restrictioris of the laws for' the prevention 

3 
or regulation of monopolies." Considerable space is devoted 

to F. Augustus Heinze, of Montana, notorious in copper af- 
fairs, and to James A« ICeene, of Wall Street* A bit of the 
nation's history in which within a few days of the national 
election of 1896 a hurry-up call for additional funds to the 
extent of $5«000«000 was so promptly met as to overturn the 

people in five states and thereby preserve the destinies of 

4 
the Republican party* 

The vivid style which characterizes all of Mr* Law- 

1* frenzied finance Laws on Everybody's vol* 11 p*0 July 1904 

Z. Ibid* p* 9 

3* Ibid* p* 9 

4* Ibid* p* 9 



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son's work is seen in the following passage: 

I shall draw a picture of two dress suit-oases of mcney 
being slipped across the table at the foot of the judge's 
bench in the courtvoom^ from its dustodian to its new 
owners^ upon the rendering of a court decision, and I 
shall show how the new owners frustrated a plot whereby 
they were to be waylaid and the bags of money recovered, (1) 

The evils and dangers of the latter-day methods of 
corrupting law-makers and how one Massachusetts legislature was 
bribed, the manipulations of certain financial Aandbaggers and 
blackmailers, a complete list of the original subscribers to 
the Amalgamated flotation will be touched upon at some length, 
promises Mr, Lairs on, who will also deal with Wall Street, the 
Stock Exchange, State Street, and the courts of justice of flew 
Jersey, I^ew York, Pennsylvania, ])elaware, Massachusetts, and 
I^ontana, 

This foreword of Mr, Lawson, from which I have given 
the above quotations seems to be rather lengthy, but when the 
magnitude of his series is considered, the multitude of details 
involved, and the nature of his siibject, his introductory para- 
graphs will appear most essential. His purpose is revealed 
clearly in his closing: 

When my story is ended and the great American people, 
whose simple but proud boast is that they cannot be 
fooled in the same place by the same methods and the same 
instruments twice, know as much as I now know of Amalga- 
mated and its relation to the "system'* nhich has for 
years as boldly, coarsely, and as cruelly robbed them as 
the coolie slaves are robbed by their master, it will be 
for them to decide whether my stor^ has been, because of 
the facts which entered into it, so well told that they 

1, Frenzied Finance Lawson fiverj^body's vol* 11 p,9 July 1904 

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will be satisfied without the restttution of the vast 
sxuns of Qtoney whioh the Amalgamated took from them, 
which the \J.B. Steel took from them, and the others tool 
lesser amoimts by equally flagrant methods; but will demand 
the overthrow of the "system" itself • It will be for 
them to decide; and if their decision should be the lat* 
ter, I will be asaglj repaid for ttie pains and miseries 
whioh must necessarily follow in the wake of a task such 
as the one I undertook when I decided to tell the Story 
of Amalgamated, (l) 

Early in the series, Mr. Lawson's plan to reveal the 

graft prevalent in the life insurance companies became known 

and both he and Everybody's publishers were the target for 

attack by the great companies. In December of that year, the 

publishers of the magazine stated their attitude on the ques* 

tien: 

If Everybody's Magazine can have a part in righting #hat 
seems to be a great wrong, it will begin to be worthy 
of its name, and whatever responsibility may be incurred 
in facing and forcing the issue we shall cheerfully shoul- 
der « knowing that in doing so we are having a part in 
averting a crisis which would bring untold misery to 
millions of people, (2) 

Mr, Lawson's views on the subject are also presented 

at this time: 

Mr, Laws on protests with all the fire and vehemence of 
which he is capable that he has no thought but for the 
interests of the policy-holders, that the evils which he 
intends to point out are full of menace, that by direct- 
ing them now and forcing a chanf?:e he will save millions 
for the policy-holders and their familes, and that unless 
the evils in question are corrected vpry soon there will 
be precipitated the gravest calamity that has ever bef all- 
ien this country, (3) 

That the magazine conteoqplated the utmost fairness 
is shown by the fact that it offered to give the Iffe insur- 
ance companies space in which they could answer the charges 

1, JJ'renzied JJ'inance Laws on Everjbodj's vol. 11 p. 10 July 1904 

2, Ibid, p, 868 December 1904 

3, Ibid. p. 867-8 



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as they a«^w fit^and by the following statement: 

We aak all pollby-holders to be the Judges: let them 
read the statements and go on their way as if they had 
not read them imtil the case is complete and each side 
has had a hearing* (l) 

In Aixgxist. 1904, the first of Lawson's aeries was 

published* In this instalment Mr* Lawson describes the ^'S^s* 

tern/' its master, Henry E. Hogers, and how the hideous crime 

of Amalgamated was bom at the home of the ""System"' on Broad* 

2 
way, Mr* Lawson is never better than when he deacribes Mr* 

Rogers. His style is a marvel of lucidity, colorful expres- 
sion, and terse forceiulness* Of Rogers he says: 

He who reads "Standard Oil" history will note that, from 
its first day until this day, whever the bricks, cabba-- 
ges, or aged eggs were being presented to "Standard Oil" 
always was Henry H» Rogers* towering fozm and defiant 
eye in the foreground where they flew thickest* (3) 

Even better is his portrayal of Mr* Rogers when tes- 
tifying in court: 

His "I will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help me God" sounds absolutely sincere 
and honest, but as it rings out in the tone of the third 
solemnest bell in the chime, this is how it is taken down 
in those unerring shorthand notes of the recording angel 
and sent by special wireless to the typewriter for His 
Majesty of the Sxaphur Trust: "What I *ell shall be the 
truth and the whole truth and there shall b e n o truth 
but that I tell, and God help the man or woman \rtio tells 
tinith different from my truth*Q The recording angft^ 
never missed catching Henry H» Rogers' court oath in this 
way, and never missed sending them along to the typewri- 
ter 'at Sulphurville, with this postscript: "Keen vour 
wire open, for there'll be things doing now," (4) 

Another extract from this instalment shows Laws on 's 



1, Jfrenzied finance Everybody's vol* 11 p. 868 Dec* 1904 

2. Ibid* Editor's note vol. 11 p* 154 August 1904 
3* Ibid, p, 159 

4. Ibid. p. 161 



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method and style to adyantage in respeot to the workings of 

the "iystem:" 

In the big room, on the fifteenth floor, at 26 Broadnay, 
there gather each day, between the hoars of eleven and 
twelve o'olook, all the active men whose efforts make 
"Standard Oil'' what "Standard Oil" is, and there also 
meet and mingle with the active heads the retired cap* 
tains when "they are in town," Around a large table 
they sit. Reports are presented, views exchanged, pol- 
icies talked over, and republics and empires made and 
unaade. If the Becorders in the next world have kept 
complete minutes of what has happened "upstairs^ at 26 
Broadway they must have tremendoiisly large fireproof 
safes. It is at the meeting "upstairs" that the melons 
are cut, and if one of the retired captains should be 
asked why he was in such a rush to be on hand each day 
when in town and he were in a talkative mood — which he 
would not be •- he would answer: "They may be cutting 
a new melon, and there's nothing like being on hand when 
the Juice runs out," (l) 

In chapter five of this instalment, "The Power of 
Dollars," Mr, Lawson utters the following telling phrases con- 
cerning the financial operations of the "system:" 

I shall go farther and say that there exists today un- 
controlled in the hands of a set of men a power to make 
dollars from nothing. 

Today "Standard Oil," the "Private Thing," is the greatest 
power in the 3 land — more powerful than the people, indi- 
vidually or as a whole, and its secret is the knowledge 
of the trick of finance by which dollaors are "made" from 
nothing in unlimited quantities subject to no laws of man 
nor nature. The dollars that "Standard Oil" makes are the 
exact equivalent of the dollars of the people as made by 
the government which we know can only be coined and put 
into circulation in accordance with law and for the ben- 
efit of all the people, (2) 

In another chapter entitled "Juggling With Millions 

of the People's Money; V he waxes even more eloquent in regard 

to a deal consummated by Mr, Sogers one day: 



1, Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol, 11 p, 157-8 Aug, '04 

2, Ibid, p, 294 September 1004 



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Thirty-six million dollars for one honest day's labort 
Thirty«8iz million dollars — and Alaskia oost us but 
foiirteen millions and SpalA relinquished to us her 
claims on the Philippines for only twenty millions* 
Thirty-six million dollars Z More than a hundred times 
as muoh as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and '^Abe*' 
Lincoln together secured for the patriotic labors of their 
lifetimes « And this flast sum nas taken from the people 
to enrich men whose coffers were already, as the results 
of similar operations, so full of dollars that, neither 
they nor their children, nor their children's children, 
could count them -- as the people count their saving^ — 
a dollar at a time -* as thoughtlessly taken as are the 
apples that the school*boy steals after he has eaten so 
many that he can eat no more. (1) 

In August and September of this year Mr. Lawson de- 
votes his space in the magazine to relating certain isolated 
facts in the career of Amalgamated in order to illustrate the 
methods of the ''system" and its masters. Beginning in Octo- 
ber he takes up the thread of his story in its natural order, 
showing how Amalgamated grew up out of relations established 
through the Bay State Gas company, how it obtained control of 
the great *banks and insurance companies, and how it invested, 
in gas stocks, the funds acquired. In this connection the 
figure of J. Edward 0' Sullivan Addicks, so-called "financial 
guerilla" enters, and Mr. Laws en's description of his person- 
ality is most vivid: 

Here we have a man without a heart, without a soul, and, 
I believe, absolutely without oonsoience — the kind of 
man who even his associates feel is likely to bring in 
after their deaths queer bills against their estates as 
an offset for what he owes them; the type of man whose 
ptomise is Just as good as his bond, and whose bond is 
so near his promise as to make it absolutely immaterial 
to him which you take. He is rather a curious piece of 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol. 11 p. 301 Sept* '04 

2. Ibid. p. 455 October 1904 



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meohanlsm than a htaman being. • . . The public woiild 
long ago have given up J* Edward 0* Sullivan Addiclcs if 
he would have let them. (l) 

Then he goes on to tell more of the man and his meth- 
od of conducting his financial affairs: 

It should be explained here that whenever Addicks plans 
an Illegal transaction — one for which he might be ci- 
villy or criminally liable *- he invariably coaches each 
of his accomplices alone » "without wUtaaesses*** And when 
^ it becomes necessary in developing the plot to have a 

confabi; at irtiich the several parties to the proceeding 
must meet 9 Addicks is most careful to preserve a ilgal 
semblance of ignorance* At intervals^ idien a dangerous 
place in the discussion is approaching^ he will get up 
from his seat, and, moving to the door, will say: '^Gent- 
lemen, halt right there, until I step out of the room; 
tap at the door idien you are over that bad spot, and I 
will return." (2) 

A comprehensive summary of the Bovember, 1904, in- 
stalment is presented in the editor's note: 

In this instalment Mr. Laws on tells of his great fi^t 
against the "system"^ on behalf of the West-inghouse com* 
panics, describes his first encounter and subsequent al- 
liance with Addicks against Henry H. Rogers, and then 
gives particulars of the terrific struggle of ^ the Bay 
State Gas cohorts against the forces of "^Standard Oil** 
for supremacy in Boston. The long-continued warring 
culminates in a meeting between Lawson and Rogers to 
- discuss a settlement. The interview, big with signif- 
icance to both men, is one of the great soanes in Mr. 
Lawson *s story, and affords, perhaps, the most vivid and 
dramatic report of a business conversation extant. (3) 

In chapter 12 Mr. Lawson describes Mr. Westinghouse, 

with ittiom he was associated at one time; as'^in many ways the 

4 
conception of what the ideal American should be." His for- 
tune "had beAn accomplished along those manly, independent. 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol.11 p. 459 Oct. '04 

2. Ibid. p. 462 

3. Ibid. p. 601 i^ov. 1904 

4. Ibid. p. 603 



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Yankee lines which have made the name In every part of the 
oivlllsed world synonymous with bustle and suooess. Above 
all, the man had organized and developed his companies with* 
out the aid of the "system" or without truckling to its vo- 
taries and consequently had incurred the deadly hatred of 

1 
some of its lords paramount*" 

"The Duplicity of Addicts" is one of the most vi- 
vid and dramatic chapters in Mr. Lawson's series, in which 
he recounts his successful interview with Mr, Hogers and then 
finds that Mr« Addicks has no money to pay for the purchase 
which he has been negotiating* He has tricked Lawson, who is 
furious but able to convince a^r. Rogers of his own innocence. 

^, In the next nhapter a new enemy is introduced, H«M* 

( 

Whitney, who attempts to secure a charter for a new gas com- 
pany from the Massachusetts legislature. He is interesting 
chiefly because of the opportunity he furnishes Mr. Lawson to 
expose the corruption in that body. According to the latter: 

The Massachusetts legislature is bought and sold as are 
sausages and fish at the markets and wharves. Tha t 
the largest, wealthiest, and most prominent corporations 
in New England, whose affairs are conducted by our most 
representative citizens, habitually corrupt the Massa* 
chusetts legislature, and the man of wealth among them 
who would enter protest against the iniquity would be 
looked upon as a "class anarchist." I will go further 
and say that if in Sew England a man of the type of i^'olk, 
of Missouri, can be found who will give over six months 
to turning up the legislative and Boston municipal sod of 
the past ten years, who does not expose to the world a 
condition of rottenness more rotten than v/as ever before 

1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Sverybody's vol.11 p. 601 l))ov. '04 



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exhibited In any commimlty In the olyllized worlds it 
will be beoauee he has been suffocated ly the stench of 
what he ezhtunes* (1) 

At a critical moment In making arrangements with Whit- 
ney^ Laws on Is tak:en IIX^ and this Is what hapj^ens: 

My associates had gone ahead with a vengeance, without 
waiting a minute to see whether I should live or dle« 
My offer to the Legislature (to pay for gas company char- 
ter) had been withdrawn; Addlcks had substituted his name 
for mine In all the documents and then he had traded with 
Bogers* It had been arranged between them that Whitney 
should go on and get the charter, which was to allow the 
company to sell gas at any price, for It was not to be un- 
der the supervision of the gas commissioners, who had 
pledged the public that the price of gas In Boston should 
not ever be more than ^1 per thousand feet. This ob- 
tained, a new corporation was to be organized, Into which 
Bogers would merge his companies, and Addlcks our Boston 
properties. In such a way as to leave Bay State stock and 
bond-holders high and dry, whll«, Addlcks, Whitney, and 
Bogers reaped tremendous profits. These amiable plans were 
being hammered Into shape at top spped, and unless I could 
get Into harness at once, my friends and I would most cer- 
tainly be ground up. (2) 

In the next chapter, Lawson apropos of trying to raise 

six million dollars to pay Bogers, describes Whitney's method 

of controlling the legislature: 

At the head of Whitney's forces was his lawyer, George H. 
Towle, big of brain, ponderous of frame, and with the 
strength of an ox. . • . Second in command was Mr« Patch, 
Towle 's secretary and factotum, his exact opposite in every 
way. . . Subordinate to Towle and Patch was a long line of 
emii^intly respectltble lawyers known all over the Common- 
wealth as **Whitney's attorneys. ** These men participated 
at nominations, orated at elections, and took care of the 
finer preliminary details. The first line of attack was 
composed of practical politicians of various grades — ex* 
senators or represend^Atlves, and local bosses, who were 
known as "^Whitney's right-hand men«^ Below these were the 
ordinary lobbyists, the detectives, and runners, who kept 
"tab" on every move and deed, day and night, of the membets 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol.11 p. 755 Dec. '04 

2. Ibid. p. 756 



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of the legislature* This was the Whitney maohine^ and 
it worked together with that fine solidity and evemiess which 
oan only be attained with lots of practioe and much success* 
In comparison with this competent organization, an average 
"Tammany Gang," a "Chicago Combine," or a "St* Louis Sioidi- 
cate" would look like a brolen down snow plough in August* (li) 

Further history about the Bay State stock is related in 

the January, 1905, instalment, to which the editor appends a 

note, as follows: 

This instalment is concerned with the further tribulations 
of Bay State Gas, how it fell into a Receiver's hands, and 
was rescued after an incredible struggle* We are intro- 
duced to three new characters and learn something more about 
financial morals and the cost of success* Incidentally the 
author tells of how the "System"" expended five million dol* 
lars to change the votes of five doubtful states in the '96 
election, and called the bribery patriotism* Addicks' plot 
to "hold up" the Heoeiver and the extraordinary scene in the 
Delaware court^room, where two dress suit-cases filled with 
mondy change hands under the Judge's nose, form the most 
sensatlonaftopassage so far in Mr* Lawson's history* (2) 

In this instalment ilr* Lawson gives his readers a most 

effective passage on making money Illegally: 

Into the rigging and launching of almost every big finan- 
cial operation in the United States during the last twenty 
years, double-dealing, sharp practice, and Jobbery have en- 
tered; and what is more, the men interested have partlcipa* 
ted in and profited thereby* To correct a popular fallacy 
I want to say that I am not referring here simply to moral 
derelictions but to actual legal crimes* If the details 
of the great reorganization and trustification deals put 
through since 1685 could be laid bare, eight out of ten of 
our most successful stock- jobbing financiers would be in a 
fair way to g*t into state or federal prisons* They do 
such things better in England* During the past ten years, 
three "frenzied financiers," have practiced their legerde- 
main in London — Ernest Henley, Baxney Bamato, and Whi ta- 
ker Wright* The first is bmkrupt and discredited; Barney 
Bamato Jumped into the ocean at the height of his career, 
and Whi taker Wright, after numerous attempts to escape, was 



1* Frenzied ^'inance Lawson E/^Bybody's vol* 11 p*757 Dec* '04 
£* Ibid* vol* 12 p* 40 Jan* 1905 



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hauled up before an Englleh judge and jury^ promptly con- 
^rioted and sentenced^ and committed suicide by poison be- 
fore leaving the court- room. I will agree at any time to 
set down from memory the names of a score of eminent Amer- 
ican financiers, at this writing in full enjoyment of the 
envy and respect of their country-men and the luxury pur- 
chased by their many millions, whose crimes, moral, and le- 
gal, committed in the accumulation of these millions, if 
fully exposed, would make the performances of Wright and Bar- 
nato seem like petty larceny in comparison* But freedom 
and equality, as guaranteed us by the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, have recently been capitalized, and ^^ffreedom'' now 
means immunity from legal interference, for financiers, while 
the latest acceptance of ''equality'^ is that all victims of 
special privilege are treated alike by those who control and 
exercise such privilege « If the judges and the public pros- 
ecutors of these United States were equal to the sworn du^ 
ties of their sacred offices, this ''freedom'^ would have been 
confined long ago, and throughout this broad land tnere 
would be jails, full of "frenzied financiers" who had ima- 
gined themselves licensed to rob the public* (1) 

With this instalment the first part of Mr* Laws on 's 
series on "Frenzied Financed dealing with the career of Bay 
State Gas is concluded* This first part ran through seven is- 
sues of the magazine* So much preliminary revelation was con- 
sidered necessary by Mr* Lawson to prepare the ^'way for a pro- 

2 
per understanding of the crimes to which I am now coming*" 

He also said in this connection: ''My purpose is to educate the 

people of this country to the fraud and rapacity rampant in the 

Z 
world of finance." 

Fart II, which is begun in the February number of 1905 
deals with the "crimes committed in connection wi12i the organ- 
ization, flotation, and subsequent manipulation of this Amalga- 
mated company*" It starts out as an "exposition of the finan- 



1. Frenzied i'inance Lawson Everybody's vol*12 p*45-6 Jan* '05 
Z. Ibid, p* 53 
3. Ibid* p« 53 



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olal structure of the country , so that readers unversed in 

the terms and Institutions of the stock market would be 

equipped with a thorough understanding of the methods and 

principles of finance and the various organisms and their 

1 
functions through which business Is conducted*'^ 

Of course the "System" was not calmly sitting still 
and allowing Lawson to expose Its Inner workings and to reveal 
Its vital mechanism without making a protest, and a violent 
protest at that. As soon as the publication of the articles 
was begun, he was made the subject of bitter personal and bus- 
iness attack by the "System" end the newspapers, news agen- 
cies, etc* This fact led the publishers of Everybody's to 
reprint In the February, 1905, issue of the magazine an arti- 
cle entitled "Thomas W« Lawson at Close Hange — an Intimate 
Talk with the Financier and Fighter" by Arthur McEwen, which 
was originally published in the liew York American, on Nov, 27, 
1904; and another entitled "Lawson, the Man," by James Creel- 
man, originally published in the Uew York World, on Dec. 1£, 
1904, both tributes to his remarkable personality* These 
attacks continued with unrestrained violence and bitterness 
all through the publication of the series and until Lawson 
gave up the fight. 

Returning to the publication of Part II, which is intend- 
ed to Explain to the public the inner workings of stock tran- 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol.12 p. 
Advertising Section Editor's note 



65 



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eaotions^ In Ut^ . Lawson's own words, we have the following: 

The "^System" has cunningly possessed itself of the finan- 
cial mechanism of the country and is running it, not for 
the object for which the machine was devised, hut for the 
benefit and personal profit of its Torfcdries, and so the 
vast correlating organization of banks, trust companies, 
and insurance corporations which were brou^t into being 
for the safe handling of the people's savings has become 
an agency for transferring these savings to the control 
of unscrupulous manipulators, who take liberal toll of 
every dollar that passes through their hands « (1) 

Chapter three of this second part is an admirable 
exposition, treating of the origin of law, money, life in- 
surance, fire insurance, bank, corporation, stock exchange, 
and other inatittitiOBS in response to the growing demands of 
civilization* Chapter four, "The Magic Jimiiy," shows how 
the trust of "Jimmy" controls these institutions and is the 
master key to the people's financial structure « 

In the March instalment, the Editor's note foretells 
the contents of the various chapters: 

The author plun|es directly into "Coppers," explains the 
economical situation out of which Amalgamated was evolved. 
and describes the significant interview at which he induced 
Henry H. Sogers to take up the project. "Standard Oil's" 
method of organizing a stock campaign is graphically set 
forth, and incidentally we are given the story of the bit- 
ter fight over Butte and Boston. (2) 

Typical of Lawson's vivid style is the following 

passage, apropos of the period between 1896 and 1904 which is 

interwoven with the narrative of happenings in Amalgamated: 

It is a span of years crowded thick with events, for it 
is the period of the greatest financial "jamboree" the 
world has eveK seen, when American financiers, glutted. 



1. Frenzied ^inance Lawson Everybody's vol. 12 p. 67 Feb. '05 

2. Ibid. p. 341 March 1905 



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gorged, and frenzied with millions, In the throes of their 
golden dellrlTim vied with one another In debauohlng the 
Industries of the country, perverting the proud and un- 
tarnished Institutions of an honorable commerce Into wan-- 
tons of the stock market, (l) 

Under the heading "Rogers Grasps 'Coppers*" Mr. 
Laws on writes chapter eleven of the March Instalment, des- 
cribing the birth of Amalgamated: 

Thus Amalgamated began. It might have brought to all 
the world good will and happiness, and to the men who made 
It much glory and the great regard of their fellowmen. 
Instead, It has wrought havoc and desolation, and Its 
Apache-llke trail Is strewn with the scalped and mutilated 
corpses of Its victims. The very name Amalgamated con- 
jures up visions of hatred and betrayal, of ambush, pit- 
falls, and assassination^ It stands forth the «>udas of 
corporations, a monument to greed and a warning to rapa- 
city. And may this story that I am to tell so set forth 
Its Infamies and horrors, that never again shall such a 
monster be suffered to^ violate and defile our elvlllzatlon. (2) 

The April chapters are best characterized by the 

editor's note attached to the first of the Instalment: 

In this Instalment the author describes the process of ac- 
cumulating the copper properties which went to the making 
of Amalgamated. The tremendous excitement the movement 
aroused In Boston, the market battles waged over coveted 
stocks, and the various vicissitudes of a spirited campaign, 
are set forth In a vivid and picturesque narrative. A 
crowning axhlblt of the "System's" method of possessing 
Itself of the people's money Is presented in the story of 
how the stock-holders of Utah Consolidated, Including a 
great corporation lawyer, were tricked out of stock worth 
millions of dollars — one of the most extraordinary per- 
formances of Frenzied Finance. The details of this mar- 
vellously profitable piece of financial legerdemain are 
frankly exposed, and afford a fresh examination of the 
"System's" Insensate greed for the dollars of others and 
the lengths It will go to gratify them. (3) 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody' ss vol.12 p. 346 March '06 

2. Ibid. p. 353 March 1905 

3. Ibid. p. 485 April 1905 



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The Uay instalment Is a prelude to the dramatlo oil- 

max to which Lawson has been so slowly and thoroughly working 

up to\ a climax revealed in the June number of the magazine 

after the series had been running nearly a year. The editor 

comments as follows: 

We are now fairly into the first crime of Amalgamated. 
In this instalment the extraordinary personality of Henry 
H. Roofers is to the fore, and the inexorable force and re- 
lentless will of the man are graphically depicted. The 
chanpre of plan by mhich the Daly-Hipgins-Levis properties 
were substituted for the Boston group of "Coppers" is ex- 
plained, and the purchase of the Parrott mine at four times 
its value furnishes a contrast to the invariable victories 
of the "System/" The most dramatic episode is the hold- 

up of the Lewisohn Brothers, lAio are coerced by Mr. Rogers 
into surrendering to him their great copper business. The 
austere business religion of "Standard Oil" — Ixtract Every 
Dollar «- i& disclosed in all its pitiless greed. Some 
of the tremendous profits yielded by subsidiary deals to 
Rogers and Rockefeller are revealed for the first time. (1) 

The June instalment of the series contains the Crime 
of Amalgamated, which has been prophesied by Lawson for such 
a long time, as it seemed to the impatient public. The edi- 
tor says of it: 

In this, the pivotal instalment of the "Frenzied Finance" 
which the public has so impatiently awaited, the author 
plainly sets forth the details of the first great crime of 
Amalgamated, describes the interview in which H.H. Rogers 
sought to compel him to shoulder the legal responsibility 
for the subscription advertisements of the new corporation, 
and tells how finally he outwitted Rogers and committed 
"Standard Oil" and the National City Bank to announcements 
which absolutely fastened liability on them. These adver- 
tisements are reproduced and dissected, and there follows 
a vivid picture of the spectacular mcidni^t scene in the 
great banking house where the subscription allotment was 
made and the fraud perpetuated whereby, wontrary to the 
formal public pledges, each subscriber was deprived of his 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol.12 p. 606 May '06 



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proper proportion of the stock by the introduotion of a 
bogus subscription. iiiever previously has there been an 
intimation of this nefarious proceeding^ and it has re- 
mained unknown save to the handful of eonspirators idio 
profited by it. (l) 

The next instalment in July closely follows the 

vein of the «iune revelations. An able summary is made by 

the editor: 

Treachery and greed are the keynote of this instalment. 
In his most graphic vein the author describes the immedi- 
ate consequences of the Crime of Amalgamated^ the brutal 
repudiation of pledges, the uneasiness of Wall Street, 
and the determination of Sogers and Rockefeller to turn 
their allotments into money after organizing a pool of 
insiders to hold up the market price of the stock. The 
attempt of Rogers to deprive Mr. Lawson of millions — 
his share of the flotation profits — and its frustration, 
together with the subsequent reconciliation of the belli- 
gerents, are among the most dramatic episodes in the story. 
Some new personalities come on the stage; and it is made 
plain how "Standard Oil" ekakes care of its political 
friends. In r^Lawson and His Critics" new phases of the 
Insurance problems are discussed. f2) 

The exact nature of the so-callec "Crime of Amal- 
gamated" 13 set forth by Mr. Lawson in the following passage: 

The crime of Amalgamated, as I have explained it, con- 
stitutes a specific breach of the banking laws of the state 
and nation. But the legal aspects of the offense are 
trivial in comparison with the great moral crime which was 
consummated by Henry H. Rogers arid James Stillman in the 
national City Bank on that night in May, 1899. Through 
false representations and specious pledges and the credit 
of the names of "Standard Oil" and the National City Bank, 
thousands of people were beguiled into Investing their 
savings in the Amalgamated Copper company. Becaude of the 
promise of great gains other thousands mortgaged their 
homes, appropriated their wives' savings, even their em- 
ployers' funds, and put them into this fair-seeming enter- 
prise. The greatest bank in America aided and abetted 
the conspiracy, by the loan of its funds to luie the vic- 
tims deeper into the toils. All in, the trap is spring; 



1. Frenzied i'lnance Lawson Everybody's vol.12 p. 717 June '05 

2. Ibid. yol. 13 p. 40 July 1905 



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the thousands are despoiled of the Bavlngs of years by 
familiar devices of finance, and throughout the^land'i* 
spread a wave of misery, madness, and despair. 

A few men cannot deprive even a few thousands of so great 
a sum as ^#36, 000, 000 without worlcing untold injury upon 
the entire body of the people. Such a stupendous sum 
looted from the coffers of the man and piled in the vaults 
of three or four men unbalances the whole econcmic struc- 
ture of the nation Hot only have the people been 

deprived of the profits of their labor, but this capital- 
ized prosperity is the stem instrument by which new bur- 
dens are laid upon their shoulders and new tithes are ex- 
acted from their wages. 

The love men have for the formulas and ooriventions of their 
daily lives is the "System's" opportunity for plunder and 
it is this fundamental principle of humanity that makes my 
work so difficult. It would be as easy to instruct the 
masses that their playing cards are all wrong and that the 
acik is really of lower value than the two-spot as it is to 
awaken them to the terrors of the conditions that are con- 
fronting them; to compel them to realize that the despotism 
of dollars is being organized among them; that the; cherished 
institutions of generations are the instruments by which a 
few daring schemers are concentrating into their own hands 
the money of the nation, and that this concentration can 
have no other result than the abject slavery of the Ameri- 
can, people. (1) 

The story of Frenzied i'inance continues to run on 
for several months elaborating the career of Amalgamated and 
shedding further light upon the financial methods of the "Sys- 
tem." The copper war in Montana, figuring Fritz Augustus 
H^inze, a young mining engineer who knew how to fi^t the "S^s* 
tern" with its own weapons, is discussed in the October number. 
In the succeeding month the story, of the Northern Pacific Cor* 
ner is thrillingly related. How closely finance is related 
to politics is shown in the December Instalment wherein we read: 



1. Frenzied i'inetnce Lawson Everybody's vol.13 p.43-4 July '05 



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A sensational instalment covering the assassination of 
President iioKinley and the orowning catastrophe of Amal- 
gamated 's career — and the cutting of the dividend. 
How the author gained millions by the Morthem Pacifid 
crash and subsequently dropped them in Amalgamated; how 
''Standard Oir^ knowing the President must die, disposed 
of its stock holdings and sold the market "short:" how 
the expected smash was averted by the power of J. Pie*- 
pont Morgan and in place of a panic there ensued a bull 
market; are most graphically set forth. How "Standard 
Oil" precipitated the decline it needed by scuttling 

"Coppers" the day after the President's fxineral; the 
terrible slump in Amalgamated that then set in^ and the 
ruin and dismay that followed, foztn the climax of a 
great story ^ (l) 

It was expected that the opening number of the year 

1906 would mark the ccnclusion of "Frenzied Finance," as is 

set forth in the editor's prefatory remaiks: 

Boston Gas is the subject of this, the last instalment 
of "Frenzied Finance," The later vicissitudes of the 
unfortunate corporation are set forth; Addicks reappears 
and is discovered for a brief period in Bogers' aims, 
A new class of financiers — the "Goodie Goodsff — takes 
the stage, and there is an inspiring tableau representing 
the stock raid for conscience's sake. Lawyers, Judges, 
receivers, and other functionaries participate in a Donny- 
brook fight for the relic and remnants of Bay State Gas; 
a vital passage describes the final falling- out between 
the author and the Master of "Standard Oil/' and in bril- 
liant fashion there is described the tremendous court duel 
which signalized the parting of the ways. In conclusion 
there is a brief review of the story. (2) 

A "Lawscnesque** description of the "smug men of fi- 
nance" mentioned above is found in chapter 31 of the Janiiary 
number: 

When these white-wax-plated warriors of the golden highway 
are marshaled for the easel ^ the inkpot must be discarded 
and the qxiill reversed lest their immaculately glazed hides 
should be stained or punctured. So with the feather end, 
my weapon, I shall run over their enameled-f or- inspection 
surface and lay- in their outlines in a solution of smudge 
Juice and paaay extract. (3) 



1. Frenzied JS'inance Laws on Everybody's vol.13 p. 822 Dec. '05 

2. Ibid. vol. 14 p. 73 January 1906 

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The series is at last concluded in February^ after 

having Ton for almost two years, Mr. Lawson says in his e|>i^ 

logue that he has another motiye for writing the story besides 

that of revealing the "Crime of Amalgamated*" I shall let 

him tell this motive in his own words: 

In closing this narrative I desire to reiterate that my 
primal object in setting down my story has been to educate 
the American people so they could grasp: firsts the appal- 
ling corruption of prevailing financial methods; then the 
signifio4nce of this remedy and its application to existing 
conditions. Throughout I have had these two purposes in 
mir-d — and while in any event I should have given the peo- 
ple the history of the monstrous frauds of Amalgamated, so 
they might be awakened to their wrongs, the stor;^ has owed 
its chief importance tn my e^es to the fact that at its 
conclusion I should have my audience equipped to understand 
and turn to practical use the Hemedy devised to correct the 
very evils which it had been my task to expose. The method 
and the style of narrative used was aimed At arousing the 
people's attention to my facts. It will be admitted by my 
severest critics that the latter result has been achieved. 
The people are awake. They are ready to act. My judgment 
has been vindicated. 

The elucidation of my Remedy is another affair, however. 
It calls for quite a different, form of exposition, and from 
now on I shall perhaps err on the side of calmness, studied 
evenness of statement, and sobriety of recommendation. Sot 
indeed that I shall throw away the pen with which ^Frenzied 
Finance" was written, for the crimes set forth therein have 
many prototypes calling as loudly for the scimrge and scal- 
pel, and in the course of time, when the mathematics and 
economics Of my Remedy have been given to the people, I 
shall return to the performance of other American royalties, 
whose millions have been crimped and gathered by methods 
aa devilish as those of "Standard Oil" and Amalgamated. (1) 

The elucidation of Mr. Lawson ^s remedy, however, was 
slow in coming about, and it so happened that it was never gi- 
ven to the world at all, for Mr. Lawson found that increasing 



1. Frenzied Finance Lawson Everybody's vol. 14 p. 70 
Advertising section February 1906 



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business oares demanded his attention after two years of par- 
tial negleot and he also decided that the '^people'^ were not 

worth all the trouble he was taking In their behalf. Their 

1 
gratitude was an uncertain quantity. This decision was a 

great blow to Everybody's publishers. Immediately upon the 
conclusion of "Frenzied -^'inanoe," however^ he was still plan- 
ning to set forth his Bemedy^ and during the period of waiting 
for the proper time to "spring" it, he wrote several "muckra- 
king" art idles for Everybody's, as well as a thrilling serial 
entitled "Friday, the 13 th^" 

The first of the muckraking articles appeared in the March 
number of the magazine, immediately following the conclusion 
of his famous series. It was entitled "The Black Flag on the 
Big Three," and is a further discussion of the Insurance com- 
panies, a problem which was touched upon in "Frenzied Finance." 
The editor gives the crux of Hie article tiius: 

The last state of the great Insurance companies is worse 
than the first. The author declares the "System" had the 
fiew York Investigation Coinmission muzzled and Counsel Hughes 
in shackles. All trails leading to big steals were 

smothered and public indignation was shunted upon minor 
thieves. The Rogers-Ryan-Morgan Combine, now In suprame 
control, seriously menaces policy-holders* interest. (2) 

In this series Mr. Lawson contends that legislative 

Investigation of the life insurance companies covered only 

the petty grafting and that the really big steals are more 

safe-guarded than ever as a result. He says: 



1. VhifriiQfLve Up the Fight Lawson Everybody's vol. 18 p. 287 

February 1908 

2. The Black Jlag on the Big Three Lawson Everybody's 

Editor's note vol. 14 p. 407 March 1906 



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Can any permanent good come from any investigation which 
stops short of the head^faters of the "System?" i'or myself 
I have no hesitancy in declaring that the only remedy I see 
for the evils which are now partially exposed^ is to place 
the companies in the hands of men at the coming annual elec- 
tion who will he pledged to find out by the employment of 
public accountants how many dollars have been looted and 
how, and who will then compel restitution and punishment, 
and, after that, an honest reorganization* (l) 

He concluded with the dire prophecy that if this 
were not done, within five years the Big Three insurance com- 
panies would become insolvent. The attaolc on the life in- 
surance companies was continued by Mr. Lawson in the April num- 
ber of the magazine, in another article, entitled "The i'ight 
for the Big Three." llie editor says of this: 

This article reports the progress of the contest for the 
control of the Mutual Life and Hem York Life insurance com- 
panies, and discloses the dangevous and corrupt tactics of 
the officers to bbtain proxies. The author indorses the 
Armstrong recoomendations, and outlines the plans of the 
Commission of Governors for controlling forthcoming elec- 
tions of trustees. (2) 

Mr. Lawson shows in this article how important the ready mil- 
lions of the life insurance companies are to the operations of 
the "System." 

In May of that year, Mr. Lawson published an article 
called "Fools and Their Money" in which he explained «hy he was 
delaying the publication of his RemAdy. He felt that the peo- 
ple were not ready to receive it. The editor explains ^r. Law- 
son's position to the readers of the magazine in this fashion: 

In this article Mr. Lawson states his reasons for withhold- 
ing his Remedy. That the people are wholly undfrady to 
receive it is amply proved by his story of the recent Heinze- 
United-Copper-Amalgamated coalition. With stupendous auda- 
city the "System" has openly rigged its old game, and the 



1. Black Flag on the Big Three Lawson vol.14 p. 65 adv. section 

March 1906 

2. fight for the feig $hree Lawson vol. 14 p. 54&'zA^JSi'^3^gl^ 



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people^ despite ^twenty- three months of ''Frenzied ^Inanoe^** 
and niiinberless other exposures of the ''System's'' orlmes^ 
have rushed as inadly as ever to be fleeced. Helnze's prop- 
osition that Lawson take oharge of the marketing of United 
Copper, the startling results of an investigation of the 
property, the implanting of the stock in hanks and trust 
companies, and its manipulation in the market, make up a 
story In comparison with which previous episodes of Fren- 
zied Finance seem pale. Th article closes with a brilliant 
description of the court room scenes in Boston during the 
arguing of the Bay State Gas case. (l) 

"Punch and Judying the United States Court" is a 

dramatic article by Mr. Lawson in the Jime issue, showing "high 

finance" on trial. 

In a series of flash lights Mr. Lawson presents the court 
scenes — this time, a high court scene. The reader will 
see, true to life, the "System's" hair-splitting machine in 
one of its high-speed contests. lie one, after reading this 
article, can fail to understand the difference bwtween the 
vulgar theft of a five dollar gas ibeter and the aristocratic 
leeching of ^4,000,000 of the people's savings. In the 
February issue the author graphically describes the trial of 
the poor gas-meter thief; taken together with this portrayal 
of the formal and polite acquiescence in the dishonest an- 
nexing of millions, the two pictures might well bear the in- 
scription, "Modem Justice." (2) 

Other articles appearing during the rest of the year 
which were written by Mr. Lawson include: "A Prediction Roll Call" 
in July; "The Muck- Raker" in August; "The Burning Insurance Issue" 
in October; and "To My Readers" in Movember. These practically 
conclude his muckraking articles in Everybody's Magazine. 

Although the publishers of Everybody's Magazine devo- 
ted a vast amount of space to "Frenzied i'lnance" and the inevita- 
ble accompaniment of discussion and letters evoked by it, yet 
they found sp»ce, soon after it was initiated, to piibllsh other 



1. Fools and Their Money Lawson Everybody's vol. 14 p. 690 

May 1906 

2. Punch and Judying the United States Court Lawson Everybody's 

vol. 14 p. 828 June 1906 



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articles of a dlstlnotly muokraklng nature. One of the first 
of these was "The Greatest Trust in the World," written by Char- 
les Edward Russell, a series whioh ran for seven months and was 
second in importance to "Frenzied Finance," This series was de- 
voted to an exposure of the Beef Trust, Although it laclcs the 
hlood and thunder of Mr. Lawsoi's work, it is very interesting 
and is carefully and ably written. Mr. Russell presents a vast 
number of facts and figures most clearly and effectively. 

I shall quote from a prefatory note to the series writ- 
ten by the editor, outlining the nature and purpose of the series: 

The meat, fruit, and dairy products on which the American peo- 
ple live, grow more costly every year. At the same time the 
farmer and cattle-raisers comp&ltln they are receiving less for 
their products than ever before. Why? Everybody's Magazine 
commissioned Charles E. Russell, one of the ablest and strong- 
est of our great newspaper writers, to make a thorough inves- 
tigation and to ascertain exactly the cause of this anomalous 
condition. The result of his investigations is 6*t forth in 
the series of articles, of which this is the first. He reveals 
a monster monopoly greater and greedier even than "Standard 
Oil," With its ten^tlkcles fixed in the natural food supply of 
the American people, racking producer and racking consumer, and 
standing resolutely between, gathering toll from each. It is 
the Beef Trust, remorseless, tireless, insatiable, defying the 
law of the land, and even Wall Street itself, terrorizing great 
railways, exacting tribute from more cozmnodities than all other 
trusts and mohopolies together, and planning to control the 
price of every eatable thing grown in our country, and to con- 
trol it for its own profit. Today it fixes the prices of all 
meats, fruits, fertilizers, and dairy products; within cettain 
limites it can make the price of wheat, com, and oats what it 
pleases. Tomorrow, it may be able to control the price of 
every loaf of bread. The growth and development of this ter- 
rible monopoly which threatens to reduce to semi- serf cbom the 
farmers of the West and to make its owners the richest men in 
the world is a story of extraordinary interest, the details 
of which may well astonish the American people. (l) 

The building up of the great Beef Trust lias been made 



1. Greatest Trust in World Russell Everybody's vol* 12 
p. 147 February 1905 



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possible^ according to Mr. Russell's Investigation, because of 

railroad rebates ^ a factor which made **Standard Oil" possible, 

too. ^he revolutionizing effect on the world's food markets of 

the invention of tlie refrigerator car, the creation of the dressed 

meat traffic, and the transformation of Chicago into the slaugh* 

ter-house of the continent, as well as the fonnation of the tnist 

from the interests of P.D# Armour, Gustavus F. Swift, George H. 

Hammond, and I^elson Morris, are all discussed by Mr. Russell. 

The enormovs and illegal tribute in the form of railroad cnnces- 

sions and the 80 per cent control of the refrigerator car supply 

were the chief weapons of the trust in securing its monopoly, 

according to the series. 

In March, 1905, Mr. Russell started the first part of . 

the series under the title, "The ^reat Yellow Car ~ the Bandit 

of Commerce." 

In this instalment Mr. Russell starts the story of the Beef 
Trust, that monster monopoly whose stealthy hold is fast olos* 
ing over our entire food supply. He shows tne very source of 
it, in the Refrigerator Car ~ the bandit of commerce. He 
shows Ilelson Morris, the first to realize its immense possibil- 
ities, and Gustavus against crushing odds. He shows the first 
glimpse of a rebate — founded in the ugly private graft. He 
traces the stealthy growth of the rebate to the extortionate 
and corrupt mileage and "icing" charges. The mysterious ter- 
ror, the Big Pistol, is made clear; the dry, grim chuckle of 
the Trust when called to face the inquisition of the i«'ederal 
government is reproduced. This instalment ends with the de- 
tailed story of the capture of the California fruit market 
by the Srust. (1) 

A clsar idea of Mr. Russell's style can be gained from 

the following passage about the formation of the Trust: 



1. Greatest Trust in World Russell Everybody's vol. 12 p. 291 
March 1905 Editor's note 



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As the four great packing houses. Armour, Swift, Hanxaond, and 
Morris, began to assume over-* shad owing importance and to draw 
together toward the eventual Trust, the refrigerator car and 
the Big Pistol became the most powerful agents for crushing 
out competition* Rival houses that had no refrigerator cars 
found that rebates made the four big packers unassailable • 
Such houses succumbed first* Hival houses that had refrigera- 
tor cars found that the cars of the bigger and more aggressive 
packers were favored by the railroads, handled more rapidly, 
sent back with less delay; that the car of the big house was 
in fact a club to beat the smaller firm to death; and they 
gradually got out on the best terms they could obtain* Thus 
the refrigerator car formed the Beef Trust* (1) 

How the railroads were utilized by the Beef Trust is 

shown in the following: 

In the April instalment Mr* Hussell tells of the victimizing 
of the Bailroads by the Beef Trust* He depicts in detail the 
workings of "under-billing" vice — the shipping of a product 
at a rate lower than the scheduled one* He shows the farcical 
inspection of the trust cars* He gives us a picture of 16 
great railroad presidents, sneaking into the Metropolitan club 
to rebel in concert against the low "miniimm load limit*^ forced 
on them by the Trust, and the impotent end of their efforts* 
The reason for the terror the powerful railroads suffer is 
shown in the statistics of the huge traffic the Trust controls* 
All Mr* Hussell 's statements are nailed down by vivid instan- 
ces of robbery of the merchant, who, in turn leads it all 
^upon you, and you pay it — good, easy man -- three times a 
day*" (8) 

Mr* Hussell says in this connection: 

But the Trust's extortions from the railroads are small com- 
pared with its extortions from the shipper, the grower, the 
commission merchant, and the small dealer* The situation it 
has created in respect to these interests is so extraordinary 
that the attention of the whole country should be drawn to it* (3) 

The Garfield report which tells the country that there 
is no such trust as the Beef Trust, is next taken up* The ed- 
itor comments as follows: 
Mr* Garfield, the Mational Commissioner of Corporations, has 

1. Greatest Trust in world i^ussell vol* 12 p. 295 March 1905 

2* Ibid* p* 503 April 1905 
3* Ibid, p* 509 



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recently assured the oountry officially that thexe is no Beef 
Trust, or if there be one, that it is a harmless institution* 
The Legislature of Kansas has by resolution denounced his re- 
port as '^little less than a fake*** In the June instalment 
of his story, Mr« Ruesell will deal with this report and show 
the amazing errors it contains, and explain the subtle, won- 
derful, and far- reaching political "^pull"^ of this rapacious 
combination that enable it to influence even the official re- 
ports of gOTernment officials. In the present instalment 
Mr« Russell relates the startling story of the Beef Trust's 
operations in the cattle markets and upon the vast cattle in- 
dustry of the West. He shows how the destruction of competi- 
tive buying impoverished farmers, ruined cattle-raisers, drove 
banks into liquidation, and men to suicide. He tells how 
the Trust inflicted losses estimated at 412,500,000 in Iowa 
and ^109000,000 in South Dakota, how the markets were manipula- 
ted and controlled for Trust profits, how the farmer found 
himself at the mercy of a cruel and greedy monopoly. He re- 
lates how it came about that one buyer was all buyers and one 
market was all markets. He shows how the Trust has created 
a system by which it can draw supplies as it wants them until 
it artificially decreased cost. (1) 

The June instalment is an analysis of the Garfield re- 
port. It "lays bare its erroneous statements and ex parte and 
TUitrustworthy deductions and shows how the report deals with 

only one phase of the Trust organisation and a small part of the 

Z 
Trust operations and how most of its conclusions are baseless." 

The final results of the trust extortions as shown in the in- 
creased household expenses of the nation, with tables showing the 
increases, are set forth in the July number of Everybody's. 

The far-reaching effect of the Trust's operations is 
thus seen by Mr. Hussell: 

In its power to affect the business, happiness, and lives of 
millions of people, in its ramifications incalculable, in its 
strange ability to thwart laws and circumvent government, this 
Trust excels all others. The amount of its capital directly 
and oVviously employed in the slaughtering of cattle and the 

1. Greatest Trust in World Hussell Kverybody's 

vol. 12 p. 643 liay 1905 

2. Ibid. p. 779 June 1905 



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selling of meat is not so great as the capital employed by 
some other monopolies « to name a oonsplcuous example, but 

the easily reoognlzed business transacted by the Beef Trust 
amounts to more than a billion dollars a year, and when to 
these activities are added its myriad transactions not so 
easily discernible, h*ere is to be seen a commercial force 
without a precedent in Trust history. 

It has, besides, certain intimate,' useful, and often unsus* 
pec ted alliances that must be accounted with if we are to 
understand any part of its gigantic operations. 

Per this is no mere combination of a few firms to control one 
specific industry; here is no ordinary trade "merger." Here 
is something of proportions so huge and possibilities so daz- 
zling that the imagination flags in. following the dizzy spi- 
rals of its plans; here is something that as far transcends 
the limits of other trade trusts as its influence exceeds the 
narrow boundaries of Packingtown. (l) 

The final instalment in August discusses various rem-* 
edies for the problem, and suggests the elimination of illegal 
and prohibited rebates, the abolition of the system of exbhanging 
immunity for campaign funds, and the solution of the railroad 
question as a basis for the cure of trust evils. In a post-* 
script to the series, whidh was pu1)lished in September, Mr. Hus- 
sell comments on the Trust's efforts^by means of disguised ad- 
vertisements in newspapers and illegal cooperation with the Re- 
publican machine to nullify the effect of Russell's incontro- 

2 
vertible charges." 

In the spring of the same year^ Everybody's Magazine 
published an article entitled "The West Coast Land Grafters," by 
Bailey Millard, which portrayed the amazing, stupefying graft in 
the land business in the West. The careers of men prominent in 



1. Greatest Trust in World i^ussell vol. 13 p. 63 July 1905 

2. "Editor's note vol. 13 p. 380 September 1905 



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the faking of government surveys, Inoluding oongressmen and 
the U.S. dlstriot attorney, are sketched In their relation to 
defrauding the government in the matter of forest reserve lands, 
in California and Oregon* The means employed by these men in 
obtaining extensive control over land in these states include, 
according to Mr« Millard, fraudulent surveys, the use of dum- 
mies, to hold land, and the overworking of the forest reserve 
scheme* He says in this connection: 

When you have learned these things it is not difficult to 
understand how one hundred men in the great Sacramento valley 
have Qome to own over 17,000,000 acres, while in the San Joa- 
tuln valley it is no uncommon thing for one man^s name to 
stand for 100,000 acres* This grabbing of large tracts has 
discouraged immigration more than any other single factor* 
A family living' on a small holding in a vast plain, with hardly 
a house in sight, will in time be glad to sell out to the land 
king whose domain Is adjacent* Thousands of small farms have 
in this way been acquired by the large holders at nominal pri- 
ces* (l) 

The year 1906 marks the gradual decline in the appear* 
ance of muckraking articles in this magazine, and after that ^ear 
only a few are published. Constructive articles take their 
place, articles showing improvement and progress in the city, stat^ 
and nation are to be attained* 

Among the last muckraking articles published are the 
series entitled ""Bucket Shop Sharks,^ by Merrill A* Teague (June, 
1906); "The Coal Trust, the Labor Trust, and the Beople Who Pay," 
by Hartley Davis (April, 1906); and "The Oondemned Meat Indus* 
try" by Upton Sinclair (Mjay, 1906)^ In December of that same 
year an article on the oppression of Congo ?ree State in Africa, 
entitled "The Terrible Story of the Congo," and written by Robert 

1. Coast Land Grafters Millard Everybody's vol. 12 p. 589 

May 1905 



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E« Fark^ secretary of the Congo Heform association, was 

published. 

Mr. league's aeries was an exposure of petty thievery 
as opposed to the Big financiers, and revealed the organization 
of the falce exchanges, as "subterranean connection between sev- 
eral gangs of notorious bucket shop swindlers and supposedly rep- 
utable members of legitimate stock exchanges." He gives a de- 
tailed account of the workings of the robber exchanges and des- 
cribes how victims of the bucket shops may recover their money 
and how bucket shopping may be suppressed. Of the bucket shop 
evil, the writer says: 

It is a villainy which takes from Americans of comparatively 
small earnings one hundred million real, honest dollars each 
year. One-third of this sum goes directly to the pockets of 
thieves of the sort with whom Bowker (typical victim mentioned 
elsewhere) dealt. The other two- thirds is tribute to the' os- 
tensibly respectable accomplices of the thieves — publishers 
of newspapers, brokers of standing in the world's stock mar- 
kets, the telegraph and telephone corporations. 

Bogues who operate this sy*t«m for fleecing the public estab- 
lish themselves in the financial districts of the great cities; 
they push their way to the remotest nooks and crannies of the 
Republic. Their harvest field lies wherever there is a dol- 
lar that can be stolen. For their assistance leading dally 
newspapers and periodicals freely offer advertising space — 
even seek their patronage, offering them place and publicity 
equal %ith that alforded advertisements of legitimate bankers 
and brokers, not in any way distinguishing, for the public's 
protection, the spurious from the genuine. (1) 

Of the bucket- shopper he is even more scornful: 

Your bucket- shopper is a blatant-lipped swindler, crafty, ex- 
pert in cJtime and its concealment, brazenly indifferent to the 
woe he works — a thief who boldly walks in public places. (2) 

1. Bucket ^hop Sharks Teague Everybody's vol. 14 p. 728 June '06 
2. Ibid. vol. 15 p. 33 July 1906 



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A reply which was really an attack on the Chicago 

Board of Trade, was made to Mr« Teague's article by C«C« Chris- 
tie, president of the national board of trade of Kansas City, 
in an article entitled "Bucket Shop versus Board of Trade" pub- 
lished in October, 1906. 

In April and May, 1906, Mr. Davis' articles on "The 
Coal Trust, the Labor Trust, and the People Wno Pay," were pub- 
lished because of an advance in the price of coal. The thetis 
of the series is that the government should exercise supervision 
over public utilities. The editor's note appended to the April 
chapter says: 

Our research has laid bare the most perfect of all monopolies* 
The Coal Trust controls the hard-coal supply of the world. 
It owns the railways that transport it and holds in the hollow 
of its hand the dealers who distribute it to the consumer. (1) 

The size and gigantic operations of the Trust are pic- 
tured by Mr. Davis in the following passage: 

The Coal Trust is a scant half-dozen years old. )^t it owns 
eighty- three per cent of the ooal in the ground and controls 
ninety-eight per cent; it owns a perpetual franchise to mine 
and distribute; it owns the labor of thousands of men and boys; 
it owns the men who used to be known as "indepeAdent operators,' 
then as "operators" merely; it owns the railroads that trans- 
port the coal; it owns the selling machinery. It decides 
how much coal shall be taken from the grounds, where it shall 
be shipped and how, what the carrying charges shall be, and 
the selling price. (2) 

The May instalment deals with George franklin Baer, 

head of the trust, how he brought it into being, and turned labor 

troubles to its advantage. Mr. Davis then discusses the remedy 

for the evil* of the trust. 



1. Coal Trust, etc. Davis Everybody's vol. 14 p. 435 April 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 436 



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A vivid article on stockyard conditions is embodied 
in ''The Condemned Meat Industry,'* or "A Beply to J« Ogden Armour/ 
by Upton Sinclair in the May number of the magazine. Mr« Sin- 
clair deals with the question of federal inspection and says that 
meat may be condemned by the Inspectors but it is not destroyed* 
It is used for canning purposes and consumed. The article con- 
tains testimony of workmen and former employes of Armour who 
have made specific charges that Armour violated the law. 

In his article Mr. Sinclair quotes Mr. Armour and 
says ''in the statements quoted above, Mr. Armour wilfully and 

deliberately states what he absolutely and positively knows to 

1 
be falsehoods." 

In the next year or two we find little of a muckrak- 
ing nature in the pages of Everybody's, but in 1909 more of it 
appears. "The i^east and the Jungle'' by Judge Ben B« Lindsay 
of the Juvenile court of Denver was published in September, 
1909. The story tells of the fight of one man against the con- 
ditions that threaten to make the American democracy a failure 
in government and a farce in the eyes of the world. The series, 
which runs into May, 1910, was written by Harvey J. O'Hlggins 
from the original manuscript of Judge Lindsay. 

In common with other contemporary magazines, Every)» 
body's editors began to tire of muckraking or felt that their 
readers soon would lose their appetite for it, consequently we 
find them turning to less violent subjects, written in a more 
optimistic tone. 



1. Condemned Meat Industry Sinclair Everybody's 
vol. 14 p. 609 May 1906 



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Chapter III 
THE OOSHOPOLIIifi UAQAZIBE 



As early as the sprliig of 1901^ we find fore-ruzmers 
of mnolc-4 raking artloles appearing !& the Cosmopolitan Uag- 
azine^ one of the earliest and best-established of the month- 
ly magazines* By fall these ftrst artloles had taken on a 
more definite tone^ and in llovember there was published ""Mu* 
nlAlpal MisgoTernment and Corruption, a Warning to Patriots/' 
by Prank Moss, in which the oity of Hew York received a thor- 
ough going-over* 

The sturdy tone of this fore*- runner is shown in the 

following extract: 

At present the administration is tbe nerest pretense of 
a popular or representative government, the principal of- 
ficers being openly and avowedly the puppets of the dic- 
tator of their organization, dependent upon him for di- 
rection and approval even when he is residing in a foreign 
land 

The zulers of liew York have reduced profitable misgovern- 
ment to a science, and have made popular and representa- 
tive government a mere form and pretense* for piratical 
reasons they have passed the absolute authority to an un- 
official, unsworn, and irresponsible despot* They have 
swelled their legitimate. and illegitimate money brooks 
into immense rivers* (1) 

The series ''Captains of Indus try'' which began in 

1902 and ran into the fall of 1903 is indicative of the awa- 

1* Municipal Mlsgovemment Moss Cosmppolitan vol* 32 
p* 102 liowember 1901 



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kening publio interest in the "big business" men of the coun- 
try. These were brief oharaoter sketches and treated nearly 
50 prominent men. "The Story of the World's Largest Corpor- 
ation," which began in the October, 1902, issue and ended the 
next fall, discussed the growth of the steel corporation and 
its place in American progress. 

Other pre-muckraking articles worthy of mention in this 
period were: "A Great Public Service," whose sub-title "The 
Cou3^ge, Determination, and Skill Exhibited by the Men Who 
Have Undertaken to Relieve Bew York's Poor of Policy- Thieves" 
indicates its keynote, written by Frank Moss in rather unin- 
teresting fashion; and '*Wall Street's Wild Speculation: 1900- 
1904" by Henry Clews, iriiich was really an impartial critical 
survey of speculation during that period. 

In January, 1905, "the literature of exposure" makes its 
undeniable appearance, as is evidenced by David Graham Phil- 
lips' "The Delusion of the Race Track," in which the evils of 
gambling on the races are described and moralized upon. The 
writer says: 

In results, in dividends, no other activity, not even the 
liquor traffic, compares with racing. For, as a Judge 
recently pointed out, the race track is directly the lar- 
gest agent, and the most successful, in recruiting for the 
criminal class. It makes more thieves, more murderers, 
more moral wrecks, than any other. And to deprave and de- 
bauch is its dhief object, (l) 

Some of Mr. Phillips' telling phrases are cited: 

"Bacing does not 'improve the thorough-bred.'" 

"It(k whole root is gambling; its whole flower and fruit, 
crime. 

1. ""^""o" ;/^;^''^» ^^»» ''"Ok Phillips "Ol- 38 ^^ig\i^(S^Q 



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*^Vhat bloody butoherles of oharaotere and careers to 
make the race-traok'8 smiling holidays I" (1) 

A dramatic confession of the graft prevalent among the 
police force of Hew York City where It Is Impossible for a pol- 
itician to do his duty if It Interferes with his allegiance to 
Tammany^ Is portrayed In "Confessions of a Hew York Detective/^ 
made by an ez-captain of police* The concluding paragraph of 
the series Is exceedingly forceful: 

Graft? You want me to give you a sort of graft map of 
the town^ do you? There wouldn't be room to draw one In 
what space Is devoted to a score of magazine articles. 
There's no limit to graft; It's everywhere. A building 
falls down — a case of rotten mortar; that's graft. A 
thousand chimneys send up a cloud of soZ£-coal smoke; that's 
graft. You fall over a pile of boxes, or bark your shins 
on a bunch of building material in the street; that's ga?aft# 
You stroll down to the whart for a look at the river, and 
can't see it for a mountain of freight that's holding down 
the wharf at the street's end; that's graft. You get in 
a building, and somebody yells 'Fire!" and thers isn't any 
fire escape; or if there is one, it's loaded to the guards 
with tubs, coal-scuttles, and trundle-beds; that's graft. 
And so the good work goes on. Why, mani the very ordinan- 
ces mtB passed by the City Council, not to protect the cil7, 
but to promote graft. Every one of those ordinances gives 
some department a fresh grip on the public. The ordinance 
gets in somebody's way; and that somebody has to pay. Some- 
times it's to one department, sometimes to another; but at 
least he jpays. Every department. Street, Dock, Water, 
Building, Park, Health, Lighting, each has its special line 
of graft. The police aren't alone; they're not the only 
gamblers. it) 

The fairness of the article is shown in the following quo- 
tation bringing out the other side of graft: 

It may please you to hear before I close that, in this art 
of graft, the police don't always have it all their own way. 
Those who live by the sword are sometimes grlwvously wounded, 
even if they do not quite perish, by the sword. About ev- 
ery other Albany winter, a bill is Introduced to do this or 
that savage thing to the Force. I've seen a measure offered 

1. Delusion of Kace Track Phillips vol. 38 p. 262 Jan. 1905 

2. Confessions of a K.Y. Detective vol. 40 p. 354 Jan. 1905 

Cosmopolitan 



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that was meant ^-* or pretended to be meant *- to wipe the 
police from the map • It heoame a case then of protecting 
your Job — a Job^ which If you were a captain as I was. had 
cost you {15,000 In cold, reluctant coin of the realm* (1) 

More on graft Is put forth In October, 1905, by Charles 

Ferguson In "The Redoubts of Graft and How to Take Them," an 

editorial article on the nature of graft and offering remedies* 

Graft Is not the Invention of a few, bad men. It Is the 
break-up of the old order through the spawning of a thousand 
conspiracies — sects, parties, trusts, trade-unions, finan- 
cial systems — that batten upon the common life. The man 
who stands for the public stands alone* 

There Is only one way to abolish graft* It Is not by spi- 
ritual calisthenics or punctilio* It Is not by Jails or by 
hangmen* It Is by the raising up of a public power that 
shall drive the private armies from their Intrenchments* (2) 

In August of the same year, a single article on the peon- 
age system as In vogue In Alabama and Georgia Is published, en- 
titled "Peonage In America" and written by Herbert D. Ward* 

Mr* Ward cites "many examples of criminally unjust workings of 

3 
the frightful peonage system and Its far-reaching effects*" 

In one case a negro borrowed a dollar, failed to pay It, was 
arrested, put In Jail, fined by a ooaglstrate, bound over as a 
peon to a vftilte man, and compelled to work under guard for el^t 
months* 

A scathing Indictment of the activities of the Harvesters' 
trust, showing Its crushing of competitors and use of illegal 
freight rebates Is the subject of an article by Alfred Henry Lew- 
is, entitled "A Trust in Agricultural Implements — the Opportuni- 

1. Confessions of % a*^* Detective vol* 40 p* 3&a January 190& 

2. Redoubts of Graft Ferguson vol. 39 supplement October 1905 

3. Peonage in America Ward vol* 38 p. 423 August 1905 

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ties of the flewly Formed Trust, and its Far-Beaching Influen- 
ces.^ Mr« Lewis has an interesting style, as may be seen from 
the following: 

The harvester trust in approaching freight rebates waxed 
diplomatic, not to say forbearing. It would not rudely 
fall upon the law in front, breaking it perforce, and there- 
by outraging the sickly, sniveling sensibilities of what 
shallow percentage of our citizens still stood for the maj- 
esty and sacred character of a public statute. No, it would 
attack the law in flank. It would hot buck-center, it would 
go around the ends. The harvester trust would profit by 
football .... She trust fftiipped the rebate Satan around 
the statute stump. Having billions behind it, the harvester 
trust bought up for itself, (l) 

''The Breason of the Senate," the first breath of which ap- 
peared in February, 1906, is one of the most important contri- 
butions of a muckraking character in the Cosmopolitan and was 
written by David Graham Phillips. The editorial foreword ap- 
peared in February, part of which is quoted: 

A searching and unsparing spot-light directed by the master- 
ly hand of Mr. Phillips, will be turned upon each of the 
iniquitous figures that walk the Senate stage at the nation- 
al Capitol. This convincing story of revelation, to be 
told in several chapters, and to run well through the maga- 
zine year, has been called "The Treason of the Senate," for 
the reason that that is a fit and logiaal title for this 
terrible arraignment of those who, sitting in the seats of 
the mighty at Washington, have betrayed the public to that 
cruel and vicious spirit of Mammon which has come to domi- 
nate the nation. T2) 

Then the editor proceeds to show how small a percentage of 

the people the Senate represents and concludes: 

Who, then, is to protect the people but the press? 

The Cosmopolitan is ready to do its share, and by the pres- 
entation of Mr. Phillips' "Treason of the Senate," it will 

1. Trust in Agricultural lioaplements Lewis vol. 38 p. 668 

Cosmopolitan April 1905 

2. Treason of the Senate editorial foreword vol. <kO p. 478 

February 1906 



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probably do a more oonsplcuous act of exposure of corrup- 
tion than has ever before been attempted. For in all the 
literature of exposure no such series of articles has ever 
been presented to the public • (1) 

That liie Cosmopolitan is now fully in the swing of gen- 
uine muckraking is seen from the largeness of the above promise. 
In Uarch th« first chapter of the series is presented, deal- 
ing with the economic aspects of the senate's perfidy. Mr. 
Phillips says in hie introduction: 

The treason of the Senate! Treason is a strong word, but 
not too strong, rather too weak to characterize the situa- 
tion in which the Senate is the eager, resourceful, inde- 
fatigable a^ent of interests as hostile to the American 
people as any invading azmy could be, and vastly more dan- 
gerous; interests that manipulate the prosperity produced 
by all; 80 that it heaps up riches for the few; interests 
whose growth and power can only mean the degradation of the 
people, of the educated into sycophants, af the masses to- 
ward serfdom. (S) 

The first chapter takes up ISew York's Misrepresentatives, 
Chauncey M. Depew and Thomas C* Piatt, in the wtlter*s vigo- 
rous style and phraseology. There is a vivid bit concerning 
Depew* s attachment to Cornelius Vanderbilt: 

"William H. Vanderbilt said to me, • We want your services,' 
and the commodore remarked, *Chauncey, politics don't pay. 
The business of the future in this country is railroads.'" 

It is impossible to say whether the cooomodore indulged in 
that bit of persiflage, or whether Depew* s memory is tlhx^ 
ible as his tongue, his knees, his brain, and his con- 
science, has here bent for him. The Commodore never was 
and hardly professed to be a railroad man, any more than 
Ryan is an insurance man or Morgan a steel man; he was, al- 
most frankly, a purchaser of stolen franchises, a procurer 
of profitable legislation, a bond and stock-jobber and 
sHrindler, a parasite upon production; he founded and en- 
tailed the policy which has made the I^ew York Central about 
the most corrupt and about the least progressive railroad 

1. Treason of the Senate Phillips vol* 40 p* 478 JTeb. 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 488 Cosmopolitan 



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in the world In proportion to Its opportunities. So^ he must 
have meant by that remark to Depew, If he made, It ^ **rallroad- 
Ing legislation;'* must have meant that while polltlos As an 
honorable pursuit did not "pay," politics as a criminal Indus* 
try was the future business of the country; for, not out of 
business but out of politics have the vast fortunes been made, 
except the few real estate and mining accumulations • (l) 

Much space Is devoted to Depew, the Junior Senator: 

• 
It would be a moderate s*tatement that the geniality of Depew has 
cost the people of Hew York State a thousand million dollars^, 
besides the Infamous grants of the right to tax the public In 
perpetuity. The Vanderbllts and their clique kept much; but 
It Is characteristic of plutocracy that It damages and destroys 
much more than It carries away, like a bear In a beehive. '^Our 
Chauncey's geniality Is responsible, to cite one of the graver 
kinds of Instances, for the tunnel exit from liew York City, a 
orliftlnal nuisance which the Vanderbllts have maintained all 
these years in brutish disregard of the comfort of the people, 
and at an appalling sacrifice of human lives. (2) 

Depew^s political career Is traced by Mr. Phillips, and 
his long and faithful service to the Vanderbllt Interests, as 
well as his connection with Henry H* Hyde in the Equitable Life 
Insurance company, and his subsequent public disgrace resulting 
in damage suits brought by the policy-holders. 

Alftrich is the subject of chftpter two of the series, which 

appears in April. Of this senator's power, the writer says: 

Politically, the state is securely !'the Interests" and his; 
financially, *'the Interests" and he have incorporated and as- 
sured to themselves in perpetuity about all the graft — the 
Rhode Island Securities company, capitalized at and paying ex- 
cellent dividends upon thirty-nine million dollars, represent- 
ing an actual value of less than mine million dollars, owns, 
thanks to the munificence of the legislature, the state's street 
and trolley lines, gas and electric franchises, etc., etc. (6) 

Various senators represent various divisions and subdivisions 
of this colossus. But Aldrlch, rich through (franchise-grab- 
bing, the intimate of Wall Street's great robber barons, the 

1. Treason of the Senate Phillips vol. 40 p. 495 March 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 499 

3. Ibid. p. 630 April 1906 Cosmopolitan 



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father-tin-law of the only son of the Rookefeller — Aldrich 
represents the colossus « Your first Impression of many and 
conflioting interests has disappeared. You now see a single 
interest^ with a single agent- in*chief to execute its single 
purpose — getting rich at the expense of the labor and the 
independence of the American people # And the largest head 
among many heads of this monster is that of Rockefeller, fa- 
ther- 6if-^e only son-in-law of Aldrich, and his intimate in 
all the relations of life! (l) 

A passage is here quoted to show Phillips* method of 

scathing indictment and almost Lawsonesque style: 

So railroad legislation that was not either helpful or 
harmless against "^the interests^ no legislation on the sub- 
ject of corporations that would interfere with "the inter- 
ests/' which use the corporation fonn to simplify and system- 
' atize their stealing; no legislation on the tariff unless 
it secured to ''the interests" full and free license to loot; 
no investigations of wholss&le rolbery or any of the evils 
resulting from it — there you have in a few words the whole 
story of the Senate's treason under Aldrich 's leadership, 
and of why property is concentrating in the hands of the few 
and the little children of the masses are being sent to toil 
in the dampness of the mines, in the dreariness and unheal th- 
fulness of factories instead of being sent to school; and 
why the great middle class — the old-fashioned Americans, 
the people with the incomes of from two thousand to fifteen 
thousand dollars a year — is being swiftly crushed into de- 
pendence and the repulsive miseries of "genteel poverty*" 
The heavy and ever heavier taxes of "the interests" are swell- 
ing rents, swelling the prices of of food, clothing, fuel, 
all the necessities and all the necessary comforts. And the 
Senate both forbids the lifting of those taxes and levies 
fresh taxes for its master. Tz) 

The editorial note appended to instalment three of 

this series says in part: 

In this chapter, Mr. Phillips vividly writes of Gorman, of 
Maryland, the left arm of the money power in the state. 

The story of the rich and influential senator's "rise" from 
a page on the Senate floor to the "high" position he now oc- 
cupies in the House of Dollars is in itself a blazing indict- 
ment of the upper chamber of Congress; but more is to follow, 3 
and with each chapter the revelations will grow more startling. 



1. Treason of the Senate Phillips vol. 40 p. 632 April 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 634 

3. Ibid. vol. 41 p. 3 May 1906 Cosmopolitan 



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About Arthur 2. Gorman, nominal head of the Semocratlo 

machine, Fhillipa says stril:ingly: 

To our national political machine, with its label that reads 
"* Republican'' on the one side and **Democratio" on the other, 
Aldrich and Gorman are as the thumb and forefinger to • s]:il* 
ful hand, (l) 

This dramatic chapter is summarized as follons:* 

In many miys, and at every session, Gorman is useful — as 
useful as Aldrich* 

For a small but classically perfect instance; on April 11, 
1904, a resolution to investigate post office conditions, 
including the huge railroad graft upon the post office de- 
partment, came before the Senate, Gorman: moved to eliminate 
the list providing funds for the investigation* Aldrich 
rose and pointed out that another elause, overlooked by Gor- 
man, might be construed as ordering the appropriation* Gor- 
man at once modified the motion. The resolution , freed of 
its hasty and ill-eonsidered features by the Gorman -Aldrich 
amendments, ivas passed by a "merger" vote and there could be 
no investigation of railroad postal loot for lack of funds* (2) 

Senator John C* Spooner, of Wisconsin, is described in 
chapter four as "The Chief Spokesman of the Merger," and his ca- 
reer is traced as an attorney for the Oioaha railroad and its 
land operations, in Wisconsin politics, and in the Senate* ""A 
yain search,'' says Phillips: 

Ever since Spooner attained manhood's age and influence, the 
great, vital, all-dominating, all-dwarfing issue, has been 
Justice in the distribution of wealth — the product of a 
manVs labor to the man himself* The politicans, serving the 
plunderers and diverters of the people* s property and pros- 
perity, have been trying, often successfully, to obscure or 
to pervert this issue* But it has always reappeared, strong- 
er, clearer, more insistent* In preparing this article about 
the foremost senator in talent and in reputation for respec- 
tability, his record has been searched diligently with the 

desire in fairness to present, if possible, some act of his ^ 
that vould;Show at lea^t an occasional impulse toward the side 



1. Treason of the Senate ihillips vol. 41 p/ 4 May 1906 
Z. Ibid* p* 1£ Cosmopolitan 



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of right and jiu3tioe on the great issue* The search has 
been in vain. Spooner has been in deeds steadfastly and 
constantly where he was when his Omaha patrons and pals were 
stealing the vast tracts of the people's lands, where he was 
when he devised an in junctionr making the working-man the 
slave of his employe r» So much for domestic affairs. In 
foreign affairs « the only'^matter wherein senatorial action 
was greatly important to the American people in a quarter of 
a century was the reciprocity treaties. These the traitor 
Senate killed at the bidding of ''the interests;"and Spooner' s 
record there is the record of all the "merged*" senators, (l) 

In like manner Senator Joseph W. Bailey, of Texas, 
the coming Democratic leader of the Senate, is discussed, and 
other prominent Senators, such as Philander tJ. Knox, of Phnnsyl- 
vania, Elkins of West Virginia, i'oraker of ^hio, Henry C. Lodge 
of Massachusetts, Allison of Iowa, and several others. The se- 
ries was concluded in Kovember of that same year. 

The attitude of the Cosmopolitan Magazine toward muck- 
raking and its policy in general is shown in the following quo- 
tation from "Magazine Shop- Talk" for the month of August, 1906: 

It would be idle for the. Cosmopolitan to affect a languid in- 
terest in the direct and indirect attacks made upon its so- 
called "destructive" policy, its wielding of the "muck-rake," 
and its sturdy determination to print the things which the 
solemn shows and the respectable scoundrels of the land do 
not approve. In truth the Cosmopolitan takes an interest in 
these attacks, and particularly in'^one which spread itself 
over several pages of a capitalistic magazine and in which 
even our literary announcements were held pp to ridicule. 
We have been reading with attention the long and harsh crit- 
icisms of the trust-owned newspapers and are pleased to note 
their frequent paragraphic flings. 

£Iot only do we read these lavish lucubrations, but we kaenly 
enjoy them. They are a source of infinite delight to us. 
There is only one regret in connection with them, and that 
is that the periodicals in which they appear do not have a 
wider circulation. If theyowere more generally read, it 
would not be necessary for us to advertise our magazine any- 
where. 

1. Treason of the Senate Phillips vol. 41 p. 132 June 1906 
Cosmopolitan 



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As a verity, let us state that the kind of people and the 
kind of Journals that are attacking the Cosmopolitan are the 
very kind that we had hoped and shall always hope to antago- 
nize« (1) 

Another quotation showing the oomplaoent attitude of 

the editors is here quoted: 

This magazine has paid particular attention to the great so- 
cial unrest in this country — an unrest bom bf the condi- 
tions forced upon the people by aggressive criminal corpora- 
tions, aided and upheld by an Insolent and insidously work- 
ing officialism and backed up and encouraged by a universal 
flunkeyism which stands awed and eager, panting to do the 
work of its moneyed masters* To this flunkeyism iiany of the 
journals of the day belong* They print what pleases the 
master mind. 

The new Cosmopolitan has not been in the courtier class of 
publications. It has been and is a liberty-loving magazine 
for a liberty-loving people. (E) 

Aprppos of the circulation of the magazine, the edi^ 

toriai continues: 

But the strangest argument against the Cosmopolitan is that 
it has adopted its present policy for the sake of increasing 
its circulation, which <^our critical contemporaries admit is 
booming, while in the same breath they declare that a '^con- 
stant'' policy is the only popular one. It is true that the 
Cosmopolitan's circulation has vastly increased and twice as 
many people are reading it today as were reading it a year 
ago; but this could not have been otherwise, and it seems 
queer to us that it should be urged as a fault of ours. Cur 
growth in circulation merely goes to show that there are more 
liberty -loving people in America than tnere are lovers of 
slavery. We can perceive but we cannot prevent this, and we 
do not feel in the least culpable because of the undeniable 
fact that we have profited by it. Indeed, we would far 
rather profit by leading people to liberty and to light thMi 
by leading them into darkness by the devious paths of the 
"Bonstant^ policy, which is the VJall Street policy, which is 
the Standard OH policy, which is the bribery policy, which 

is the policy of corrupt officialism, as exemplified by our 
"House of Dollars," the home of smug official respectability, 
the hotbed of treason against republican ideals. (3) 



i. Magazine Shop Talk vol. 41 p. 442 August 
2^^ Ibid. T). 44S 



2;:ibid. p. 448 
3. Ibid. p. 443 



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During the sxunmer of 1906^ the Cosmopolitan sent out 
thousands of letters to high school boys all over the country, 
in questionnaire form, about their ideas of graft. In Septem- 
ber answers to these quemtionnaires were printed under the ti- 
tle, "Graft and the Young Idea." An editorial note says in 
part: 

Graft? 
What does the youth of the land think of it? To get rid 
of the great evil they must receive ethical training, that 
they may recognize and combat the insidious temptations of 
business and official' life. 

How may the youth be reached? 

The Cosmopolitan has had an idea and has carried it out. 
It has sent to the principals of American high schools a 
list of "graft" questions to be put to the boys. The lists 
were accompanied by a letter to each principal, in which 
various questions were put. (l) 

The article consists of a list of the questions asked 
and the typical replies, with humorous comments by the writer. 
In answer to the question: "What is meant by the term, 'official 
corruption,' one answer is: "the state of affairs in the gov- 
ernment." The author of the article says by way of comment: 
"How is that for a perfect and incisive epigram?" (2) 

In conclusion, the writer says: "Aside from the cru- 
dities of phraseology and the many laughing whimsicalities of 
the budding imaginations, the growth of the moral sense seems 
to be quite healthy and deep-roOted.T (3) 

Child labor is another problem which soon claimed the 

1. Graft and the Young Idea vol. 41 p. 444 September 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 477 

S. Ibid. p. 477 Cosmopolitan 



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attention of the editors of the Cosmopolitan, as is evidenoed 
by a series of articles by Edwin iiaikham, entitled "The Hoe- 
Man in the Making," and appearing first in September, 1906. 

This "is written in the beantiful poetio prose of our acknow- 

1 
ledged foremost man of letters," say the editors in announc- 
ing the series, which is strikingly illustrated by silhouette 
pictures. A quotation from the first article, "The Child at 
the Loom," shows the writer's beautiful figurative language: 

After all these ages, more children are crowded into this 
limbo of doom than iAto any other cavern of our industrial 
abyss • In the Southern cotton mills, where the doors tOiut 
out the odor of the magnolia And shut in the reeking damps 
and clouds of lint, and where the mocking-bird outside keeps 
obligate to the whtrring wheels within, we find a gaunt feolti^ 
lin army of children keeping their forced march on the fac- 
tory floors — an army that outwatches the sun by day and 
the stars by night. Eighty thousand children, mostly girls, 
are at work in the textile mills of the United States. The 
Sotith, the "center of the cotton industry, happens to have the 
bad eminence of being the leader in this social infamy. At 
the beginning of 1903, there were in the South twenty thou- 
sand children at the spindles. The "Tradesman*" of Chattanoo- 
ga, estimates that with the springing up of new mills there 
must now be fifty thousand children at the Southern looms. 
This is 30 per cent of all the cotton workers of the South — 
a Spectral army of pigmy people sucked in from the hills to 
dance beside the crazing kheela. (2) 

The second article which appeared in October was enti- 
tled "Child-Wrecking in the Glass Factories" and was a dramati- 
cally vivid portrayal of the horrors endured b^ children, their 
lack of education, and physical, mental, and moral degeneration. 
Mr. Markham points out in a most impressive way, the remedy for 
the situation, which would be the installation of machinery to 
replace the work of the small boys. His colorful language is 
seen in the following striking passage: 

1. Magazine Shop Talk vol. ^1 p. 44^ September 1906 
Z. Hoe-Man in the Making Llarkham vol. 41 p. 482 Sept. 1906 
Cosmopolitan 

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Two and a half millions of children xinder 15 years of age are 
now at long and exhausting work in the offices, shops, mills, 
and mines of our model republic • In Pennsylvania alone there 
are at least one hundred different kinds of work at which chil- 
dren are employed; and, unhappily, it is into cheap and dan- 
gerous work that the children always swarm« They are doubled 
oarer the coal-hreakers, breathing black coal-dust; they are 
racked in the cotton-mills, breathing damp lint; they are 
strained in furniture factories, breathing saw-dust; they are 
parceled in glass factories, breathing dust of flass; they are 
crowded in soap factories, breathing dust of alkali; they are 
herddd^in felt-faoitories, breathing dust of fur; they are 
twisted in tobacco factories, inhaling the deadly nicotine; 
they are bent over in dye-rooms, soaking in the poisonous 
dyes; they are stooped in varnishing rooms, absorbing noxious 
fumes; they are stifled in rubber factories, where they are 
paralyzed with napMha; they are choked in match factories, 
where they are gangrened with phosphorus; they are huddled in 
type-foundries, where they are cramped with the poison of lead. 

It is in the glass factories, perhaps, that the child is pushed 
most hopelessly under the blind hammer of greed« Go to the 
glass-works and amid the roar and the glare and the torrid 
heat, gaze xm the scorching and shriveling children clustered 
about the red-hot hives of the furnace. (1) 

Following this series is an editorial in the October 
(1906) number, entitled "To Free the Child-Slaves," which is an 
appeal to the readers of the Cosmopolitan to join the Child La- 
bor Federation. 

"Little Slayes of the Coal-Mine" is an equally vivid 

portrayal of conditions in the coal-mines, published in Hovem- 

ber. Mr. Markham has a gripping way of presenting facts and 

of tugging at one's heart-strings, as is seen in the "The Grind 

Behind the Holidays," a December offering. His style is well 

adapted to his subject: 

In the year 1B12 a wild call thrilled over southern Europe -- 
a call for the children to gather into bands and march away 
to the far-off Holy Land. The word went out over Christen- 
dom that only the children could conquer the Saracen and re- 
cover the SSpuloher; that only "the pure-heart" could recover 

1. Hoe-Man in the iiaking Markham vol. 41 p. 568 Oct. 1906 

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the blessed tomb from the Paynim hordes • The little ones 
must ^oin the Holy V^arl And for all who lived through 
the perilous adventure, there waited a plaoe of honor in the 
hearts of men; and for all who died in battle, there waited 
the vacant places in heaven left of old by the fallen angels I 

So from cradle and hearth, from hill and field, the children 
gathered into armies and marched away« Up the Bhine and over 
the Alps, down the Bhone and over the Pyrenees, they trailed 
and trooped, weary and wondering, halt-and heavy-eyed, hurry- 
ing on, ever one, at the mystic call. Thirty thousand from 
France, under the boy Stephen; twenty thousand from Germany, 
under the boy Micholas; fifty thousand strong, the "children's 
crusade" poured on toward holy Pales tine « Hundreds perished 
of fatigue and homesickness on the stony roads; hundreds more 
went doim at sea; hundreds more were sold in lohammedan sla- 
very. The agonies of those little ones have never been re- 
corded; the waste of the hope and joy that went down with them 
has never been computed. Fifty thousand precious lives were 
poured out — a flood of bright waters lost in the desert sands, 

Let any cause today, whatever mistaken devotion, dare to call 
a host of little children to such an open field of death, and 
how soon the majesty of public opinion and the sovereign of 
the land would smite the criers and hush the presumptuous 
pleading! Yet the mysterious and awful mandate of some Power 
has gone out over our own land, summoning our little ones from 
the shelter and play and study, summiming them to a destruc- 
tion less swift, less picturesque, less heroic, but hardly 
less fatal, than that medieval destruction. Greed and gain, 
grim guardians of the great god, Uammon, continually cry in 
the ears of the poor. Give us your little ones I" And for- 
ever do the poor push out their little ones at the imperious 
ukase, feeding the children to a Iblind Hunger that is never 
filled. And the spell of material things is so heavy on the 
hearts of us that scarce a protest goes up against this be- 
trayal of youth, this sacrifice of the children in factory, 
store and shop* (l) 

Less beautiful, perhaps, but Just as impressive is Mr. 

Markham's language in "Xhe Sweat-Shop Inferno," which appeared 

in January, 1907, wherein he cites the kind of work the children 

may do and its effect on their physical well-being, -^'his article 

is perhaps the most tragic of any that have yet appeared because 



I. Hoe-Man in the Making Markham vol. 42 p. 143 Dec. 1906 
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It shows tlad d&nger of Infection from clothes made in crowded 

homes to the persons who bxgr them. Mr. Markham says in part: 

In three htmdred out of five hundred homes, women and chil- 
dren must work to eke out the living. Fourteen to sixteen 
hours is the ttsixal stretch of this long working-day. A child 
frequently eanrs only one cent an hour; while the sweater fi- 
gures so that a woman shall earn not more than ten cents. 
The average income of the whole family is five dollars and 
seventy cents a week. Sometimes in a rush order the elders 
can sleep only five hours of the twenty- four. An order must 
be finished on time and be back on time, though all other ac- 
tivities of the house should cease. The sewing-machine must 
whir, the fingers must fly. Little and big must toil, ever- 
hastening, never- re sting, to get the work out and to get more 
home work to hold the Job. For worse than all work is no 
work, and the slack spells may fall on any day. (l) 

Child workers in the tobacco industry are treated in a 
milder chapter, entitled "The Smoke of Sacrifice," (February, 
1907), those in the artificial flower industry in "The Blight 
of the Easter lilies," (April, 1907), and those in the silk, cot- 
ton, and woolen mills in "Spinners in the Dark," (July, 1907). 

In November of that same year, another editorial on 
child labor appears, which advocates the financial support of 
the readers of the magazine of the Child Labor Federation, that 
has been organized to publish facts about the child labor situa- 
tion. Part of the editorial is quoted: 

It is a melancholy fact that under our presant system the 
pursuit of profit will banish every noble instinct from the 
minds of Bome men and lead them to gloat over their own dread 
handiwork. The class that defends the employment of child 
labor asserts that child labor is indispensable to industry. 
How do you relish a vaunted prosperity which is built upon 
the bodies of two million children? Vifould you not rather 
have every machine scattered to the four winds of heaven than 
see so heinous an injustice perpetuated? Is it with satis- 
faction that you wear goods made at such an appalling expense 
to humanity? We think not . . We demand that the children 2 
be where they properly ought to be -- at home and in the school. 

1. Hoe-Man in the Making Markham vol. 42 p. 328-9 Jan. 1907 

2. Editorial on Ohild Labor vol. 42 p. 110 Eov. 1906 

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Jtunplng from child labor problems at home to the luiman 

side of the Panama canal-maklng^ we find in September ^ 1906, the 
beginning of a series of articles on conditions in the Panama Zone 
by Poultney Bigelow. The first of these entitled "Panama — the 
H-oman Side/' is a revelation of the sanitary evils evoked by mis- 
government and graft in Panama and Colon, besides giving an histor- 
ical account of the building of the canal. The next month ap- 
peared "The Canal Laborer," wherein is discussed the unfair treat- 
ment of the laborer, who is usually a negro, and the ignorance and 
laziness of the overseers • Bad conditions are laid to the inef- 
ficiency of the labor administration and the oppression of the ne- 
groes« Administration of canall operations is severely criticized 
in the third article, "Conditions in the Canal Zone," which was 
published in Hovember. 

A short, almost* editorial-like article, ridiculing a 
United States senator's suggestion that if public men are unwor- 
thy the fact should be concealed from the public, appears in Aug- 
ust, 1906, under the name of Ernest Crosby and called "The Uan 
with the Hose." The writer says pithily: ' "The man with the muck- 
rake has done his work well. K6w for the man with the hose. 
"For the hose must be played all over the Capitoi at 

Washington from dome to cellar. The dirt has been pointed out. 

1 
Kow it must be removed." 

A minor muck-raking article is that entitled "We^erhau- 

ser — Richer than John D. Rockefeller" and written bj Charles P. 



1. Man with the Hose Crosby vol. 41 p. 341 August 1906 

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Norcross. This appeared In December, 1906, and shows how a 
great lumber fortune had been built up by securing lands frau- 
dulently • Of the lumber king, Mr» Borcross says, he is a man 
"whose wealth is millions more than that of John D. Roclcefeller, 

and whose vast fortune has been made possible by a great national 

1 
crime." 

In February of the next year, an important contribution 

to the muckraking articles of the magazine is found in Josiah 

Flynt's series on the pool-room evils. The first of these is 

entitled "The Pool-Room Vampite and Its Money-Mad Victims." The 

editor's note appended to it iiays in part: 

In this article, Mr. Plynt surveys his subject in a general 
way, and shows the far-reaching effects of the pool-room and 
race- track mania. In the succeeding articles he will tell 
in details about the big gambling spiders and the little human 
flies that get enmeshed in the pppl-room web. He will also 
tell Hho Hhe men"higher up"are, and describe the system of 
police proection in the large cities, the travels of a hun- 
dred-dollar bill from the bettor's pocket to the hiimble guar- 
dian in blue whom it reaches very much shrunken in denomina- 
tion. Finally he will show where the real responsibility 
lies, and tell about the men of "culture and refinement" who 
knowingly permit this terrible traffic to thrive, and who 
themselves thrive upon its proceeds. There is scarcely a 
home in the land that has not felt in greater or lesser de- 
gree the curse of the Pool-room and the Race-Track. It be- 
hooves every good wife and mother, every honoi^ble and clean- 
minded man, to read this fearless arraignment of a vast crim- 
inal system as described by a man who knows what he is talk- 
ing about. (2) 

In Ivlarch the second article, "The Pool-Room Spider and 

the Gambling Fly" appeared, and in April, the third, "The Men 

Behind the Pool-Rooms"which cnnsisted of sketches of various Bew 

York and Chicago gamblers. A striking article called "The Tel- 

1. Weyerhauser IJorcroii vol. 42 p. 253 December 1906 

2. The Pool-Room Vampire Flynt vol. ^2 p. 360 February 1907 

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egraph and Telephone Companies as Allies of the Criminal Fool- 
Rooms" appeared in May showing how the Western Union Telegraph 

company and the Hew York and Ilew Jersey telephone companies 

« 
pocket enormous dividends through their cooperation with gam- 

hlers* The magnitude of their operations is touched upon in 

the following quotation: 

Every poolroom of the two thousand or more that were running 
in Kew York before District Attorney Jerome began his last 
crusade were equipped with one or more telephones that were 
used for gambling purposes and for nothing else. All of the 
many hundreds of pool-rooms still runniiig in Kew York, and 
all of the handbooks, are equipped with telephones for gamb- 
ling purposes and for nothing else. Every one of the esti- 
mated four 12iou8and pool-rooms throughout the United States 
is equipped with telephones used for gambling purposes and 
for nothing else. In every big city in the united States 
there are extensive switch-boards, with hundreds of telephone 
connections, which are used for gambling purposes and for 
nothing else. Every one of these telfephones and switch- 
boards was installed by one of the big. telephone companies, 
and in ninety-nine cases out of every hundred the company 
knew that it was to be used to lure men and women to destruc- 
tion. But for the aake of the swelling of dividends to 
stockholders the managers of telephone companies have entered 
into active partnership with the pool- room criminals, and, 
because their dividends are swelled so materially by these 
managers, the stockholders and directors have not said the 
word that would clear their skirts of the nasty smirch of 
this crime. They tacitly have allowed their companies to 
become bone and sinew in the body of the pool-room crime. (1) 

A scathing indictment of the He^ York Telephone com- 
pany is found in the following quotation from Plynt: 

The hypocritical cry of the Hew York Telephone company, when 
criticized for complicity in this crime, has been that it 
does not know to what uses a telephone is to be put, and that, 
bfeing a common carrier's corporation, it could not base a 
refusal to serve the public on a mere suspicion. Does anyone 
believe for an instant that the Kew York Telephone company 
does not know virtually every pool-room telephone it owns? 

1. Telegraph and Telephone Companies as Allies of Pool-rooms 
Plynt vol. 43 p. 50-51 liay 1907 Cosmopolitan 



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Does it install extensive and expensive switchboards, especi- 
ally designed to serve the largest possible number of pool- 
rooms at one time, and enter into contracts at such installa- 
tion without having any idea about. what use the apparatus is 
to be put? Does anyone outside of an insane asylum believe 
that the names in this big secret book maintained by the com- 
pany are -^thought by the management to be those of honest bus- 
iness men? These be times when the public is asked by a cer- 
tain class of corporations to believe many things. lA it not 
inferring that the public is credulous to the point of feeble- 
mindedness when we are asked to believe in the innocence of 
the telephone company? (l) 

The series is completed in June by "Corporation and 
Police Partnership with the Criminal Pool-Rooms — the real 
story of how many millions of dollars are paid over annually to 
oovporatlon 8tock:holders and the police officials of the chief 
American cities." Shortly after the publication of these ar- 
ticles Mr. ilynt died and no more brilliant offerings from his 
pen appear. 

Election frauds is the subject of the next important 
muckraking series, which is entitled "At the Tktoat of the Re- 
public" and is written by Charles Edward Russell. The purpose 
and character of the series is outlined in the editor's note at- 
tached to the first article: 

This is the first of three articles dealing with the charac- 
ter and prevalence in this country of crime against the suf- 
frage, the- greatest danger to which a popular government can 
be exposed. 

Election frauds are organized and systematically eonmitted 
along the three following lines: 

First: Before the Election, by colonizing non-residents 
and by padding the registration lists with the names of tnese 
and others not legal voters. 

Second: At the Election, by the casting of fraudulent 
votes; by "repeaters," or men that go from polling-place to 
polling-place, voting in each; by mutilating ballots so that 

1. Telegraph and Telphone Companies as Allies i'l;nt 

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they will be rejected by the canvassers; by bribery; by 
intimidating voters and driving them from the polls. 

Third: After the Election, by miscounting the ballots; 
by certifying falsely to the returns; by preventing inves- 
tigation that would reveal these crimes. 

The means of eradication of these most dangerous frauds 
lies in the hands of the American voters, each one of iiAiom 
must have a share intthe work^ Mr. Russell's graphic arti- 
cles ought to find their way to every citizen of this land.(l) 

Apropos of criminal and fraudulent voting, Mr. Rus- 
sell in his first article, appearing in December, 1907, says in 
part: 

Vaguely and loosely most of us know that this sort of thing 
g-oes on more or less. Scarcely one of us (except the prac- 
titioners and abettors of the crimes) imderitands that it is 
no longer something sporadic or spasmodic, but has become a 
vast, organized, articulated, captained, and profitable in- 
dustry, taking its place in the evolution of an evil, from 
some form of which scarcely any community in the United States 
is free. In rural regions and smaller towns where coloniza- 
tion is impossible, votes are bought ot fanners are hired to 
stay away from the polls. In the cities^ colonization, 
false registration, repealing^ and fraudulent voting have been 
reduced to a business, a matter of ccntract and brokerage, 
a business with branches in eve;ry city, with a common system 
of operation, with interdepdoadenoe among the branches, and 
with a faultless method of ^exchanging and prtecting supplies. 
What was once a crude and occasional excursion into the 
realms of crime seems now to have been so developed and sys- 
tematized that, practically speaking, one can order any rea- 
sonable number of fjraudulent votes with as much certainty 
as one would order oysters, a statement that will not seem 
in the least extravagant to anyone that knows the facts. (2) 

Mr. Russell goes on to cite instances of fraudulent 

votes cast in Mew York City, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Providence, 

Chicago, and other large cities, gilrlng figures in each case. In 

concluding his first contrib-ution to the series, he says: 



1. At the Throat *f the Republic Russell vol. 44 p. 146 Dec. 1907 

2. Ibid. p. 148 Cosmopolitan 



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One fact is apparent in all these transactions. Clearly 
the thing has passed out of the domain of partisan politics • 
Whatever may have been the case in earlier years, these op- 
erations are not now a charge upon party campaign funds • 
That is demonstrable from the fact that their extent and 
cost have growi beyond the limits of the party treasury • 
Tammany Hall has, no doubt, the most perfect and productive 
of all systems of filling the campaign treasury; but, when, 
the regular and necessary campaign expenses are deducted, 
there would be left no margin sufficient for such gigantic 
expenditures as the colonization of 1905, for instance, ne- 
cessitated. To bring a floater to New York, to maintain 
him the requisite length of time, to pay the tariff rate 
for every vote he casts, to return him whence he came, to 
pay the lodping-house keepers, to provide the army of herd- 
ers, manfi-gers, thugs, and cheap lawyers necessary to pro- 
tect and direct him, and to pay the brokerage, masses the 
items of a big bill. If, to take the lowest estimate of 
the Mew York Press, twenty thousand floaters were used in 
the New York City elections of 1905, the bill for their wort 
could hardly have been less than eight hundred thousand. 
This Sum never came from the contributions of party members. 
To find its origin we must lay hold of the fact that within 
four years of the election the New York board of aldermen 
would have franchises worth eight hundred million dollars 
to dispose of; that many public service corporations — gas, 
transportation, electric light — had vital interests at 
stake; that the great insurance companies Were directly in- 
volved. It was from these sources that the colonization 
fund came into i^ew York elections; it is from similar sour- 
ces that similar funds are drawn into other cities. 

In other words, here is revealed one of the means by which 
the corporations elect their puppets, secure their franchi- 
ses, obtain the laws they want, control legislative bodies, 
forestall investigation and present, for instance, any rate 
regulation that would regulate or any meat inspection that 
would inspect. Here is a part of the method employed since 
the floater, colonizer, and the padded registration list (1) 
became useful machinery in the making of morporation success. 

A fascinating accotmt of election-day methods is con*- 

tained in the second article, ''At the Election,'' appearing in 

January, 1908* Part of the conclusion is bpre quoted: 

One curious fact, well worth pondering, has forced itself upon 
the attention, I dare say, of every person that has ever in- 

i 

1. Throat of the Republic Hussell vol. 44 p. 157 December 1907 
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veetigated the subjeot* The trial of the actual work of 
fraud in the hallo t-boxes invari«.bly leads from the public 
in utility corporations to the haunts of crime, the gambling 
houses, the pool- rooms, and other vicious resorts. In most 
of our large cities vice has been syndicated, and the syn- 
dicates have found it profitable to combine votefebrokerage 
with prostitution or divsi-keeping. Thus the head of the 
vote-brokerage business in Philadelphia is a principal 
backer of the gambling houses; the head operator in New York 
has made millions 'rem pool-rooms, brothels, and depraved 
theaters; the man that for years and years ruled Cincinnati 
through fraudulent votes, owns half of the disreputable quar- 
ter of the city; universally gambling and disorderly houses 
appear on the list as the home of colonizers, floaters, and 
rppeaters. Eminent gentlemen whose dividends and public 
utility franchises fare exceedingly well because of these 
alliances may not care to inquire too nicely concerning the 
means by which their special privileges are secured; but 
if they desire to know I can assure them ^hat these are facts. 
And if Mr. Rockefeller's millions are tainted some other mil- 
lions I know of are putrid, being redolent of some of the 
vilest spots and vilest deeds known upon this earth. For 
the same persons that are brokers of votes are also brokers 
of men's honesty and brokers of women's souls, (l) 

''After the Election'; the third article, ''deals with 
fraud in the counting of votes and the means to prevent inves- 
tigation and punishment taken by those who have power to thwart 
the will of the people. The alarming situation in regard to 
the growing prevalence of election frauds is one that vitally 
concerns the future of our Republic. From a conservative es- 
timate only one in twenty thousand election crimes is followed 
by actual punishment. It has been the Cosmopolitan's aim to 
drive this fact home to the American people," according to the 
editor's foreword; (2) 

The fourth article, which appears in April and maWcs 
the end of the series, was entitled "Postacript — The El&ction." 

1. At the Throat of the Republic Russell vol. 44 p. 271 i^an. '08 

2. Ibid. vol. 14 p. 361 February 1908 Cosmopolitan 



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The editor's note appended to this is rather enlightening; 



Mr. Hussell and the Cosmopolitan have made plain to the Amer- 
ican public in the previous articles of this series, two 
appalling facts: 

First: That a new system of election methods, simple, bus- 
iness-like, and unfailingly effective, has been vigoirously 
developed in this country, whereby the political boss and the 
public utility corporation already have their hadds at the 
throat of our republican government • 

Second: That election crimes, the most baneful to the public 
welfare, are the safest of all offenses to commit, and the 
seldomest punished* 

To work at shattering the vicious chain of the vote-broker, 
his employer, and the criminal repeater is the most patriotic 
duty before the American citizen today* But how little the 
duty is recognized will be seen by a reading of the following 
article, in which Mr. Russell describes the effectiveness of 
the system at the election of 1907 — two years after the one 
from which he drew his previous array of facts* (1) 

Mr* Russell makes the point in his last article of the 

series that election crime is a routine occurrence: 

The great change that in recent years has come over our po- 
litical campaign methods can hardly have escaped the atten- 
tion of any thoughtful person* In the Kew York City campaign 
of 1907, as on other occasions in recent years, the success- 
ful party held practically no meetings, hired no halls, had 
no speakers, proclaimed no '"rallies," made no appeals to vo- 
ters, presented no arguments, made no promises, urged no at- 
tack, offered no defense, outlined no program, raised no ques- 
tion, indicated no policy* It merely wgnt directly and 
plainly to the vote-brokers, contracted for the number of 
votes needed, paid the bill, and took the election* And there 
is the whole new system of election methods, in New York City 
and in ether places; simple, plain,, business-like, and un- 
failingly effective, the dirty hand of the political boss and 
the dirty hand of the public utility corporation clutching 
straight at the very breath of republican gofemment in Amer- 
ica* (2) 

The crusading policy of the magazine is again revealed 

in the next important series appearing in the Cosmopolitan, which 

1. At the Throat of the Republic Russell vol* 44 p* 475 April '06 
2* Ibid* p* 480 Cosmopolitan 



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takes up "The Fight Against Alcohol" and deals with the sig- 
nificance and effect of recent prohibition legislation* Since 
this is not a muckraking series, strictly speaking, we shall 
merely mention it in passing. Written by Arthur Brisbane, the 
first article appeared in April, 1908, and was followed in 
successive months by similar discussions by various writers, 
including Dr. Alexander Alison, of the Kational Temperance 
society, Gustave Pabst, John Temple Groves, Vance Hiompson, 
and Julian Hawthorne. 

One of the most interesting series we have yet dis- 
cussed in this paper began in June, 1908, when the editors 
published "Owners of America," treating in a personal, inti- 
mate way the careers of many of the leading financiers of the 
country. Part of the series was written by Alfred Henry Lew- 
is, sketching Andrew Carnegie, Thomas F. Ryan, J. Pierpont 
Morgan; the Vanderbilts were described by Charles P. Horcross; 
Charles M. Schwab and John D» Rockefeller by Lewis, the Ar- 
mours by Arthur Brisbane, the Swifts bj^ Emerson Hough, and E.H. 
Harriman and the Asters by Horcross. Each in the series was 
illustrated with pictures of the men themselves, their homes, 
and their families. 

In a way this series is constructive in tone rather 
rthan muckraking, for it points out the superiority in brains and 
foresight of the Owners of America. Several of the articles are 
distinctly commendatory and merely trace the originality and 
business acumen that have made possible the success of the men. 



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The sketch of Andrew Carnegie is vivid and lively, 
more htunorous than otherwis-e, as might be expected from the pen 
of Alfred Henry Lewis, containing as it does a skilful combina- 
tion of facts in Carnegie* s life, his birth, parents, early his- 
tory, gradual accumulation of fortune, love affairs, and other 
things. Apropos of Carnegie's relation to his lieutenants, a 
charming bit is quoted: 

"You can't imagine,'' observed Mr. Carnegie to Manager Bill 
Jones of the Edgar Thomson Works, while talking of bis ocean 
trips, "you can't imagine the relief I feel, once I'm out- 
side Sandy Hook," 

"Well," replied Manager Bill Jones with a sigh, "you can't 
imagine the relief we^ feel once you're outside Sandy Hook*"(l) 

Mr. Lewis' humorous analysis of Thomas i\ Hyan is seen 

in the following passage: 

Mr, Ryan will take a gentleman like Mr. Parker or Mr. Hughes, 
and do with him what housewives do with peaches. He will 
peal him and quarter hiip, and stew him down in corporation 
sweetness, and then most heedfully seal him up against every 
corrupting influence. Being thus successfully canned, Mr. 
R^an will put him by on some shelf of his affairs, against a 
day of need. Later, does Mr. Ryan want a mayor or an alder^ 
man of even a governor, he takes down one- of these specimens 
of canned humanity, blov/s the dust from the corporation work- 
done in red sealing-wax on the can — to make sure of the 
genuineness of the goods, and gives him to the Machine to be 
its candidate. (2) 

Of. J. Pierpont Morgan, Mr. Lewis says pithily: 

"Everywhere Mr. Morgan makes money. He is the spirit of 
consolidation incarnate. His cry is, "There is but one god. 
Consolidation, and Morgan is his prophet." There is a 
chance here to evalue a play on "prophet" and "profit," but 
I hate puns and the English who make them. (3) 

The Vanderbilt family is the subject of Mr. Morcross' 

1. Owners of America Lewis vol. 45 p. 15 June 1908 

2. Ibid. vol. 45 p. 151 July 1908 

3. Ibid. p. 261 Au^iSt 1908 Cosmopolitan 



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first contribution to the series, in which Cornelius V. and 
his son, William H^ , are the principal figures. The writer 
says that these are the social leaders of America, too, as well 
as charter members of the "Owners of America" series, ''They 
must be regarded in the light of custodians of property be- 
queathed and safeguarded rather than as a menace to field war- 
riors of accumulation." (l) 

In October, an offering from the pen of Mr. Lewis 
is again seen in a tj^pical personality sketch of Charles H. 
Schwab. Mr. Lewis considers him more honest than the other 
owners, and says candidly: 

I should call Mr. Schwab a very honest man, but with this 
proviso, that he is honest from his own standpoint, which 
is the standpoint of one who besides being Ceflected by 
self-interest and blurred by an innate self-approval, con- 
ceives gambling-- which produces nothing -- to be quite as 
legitimate and. as moral a method of money- finding as ei- 
• ther agriculture or mining. Mr. Schwab is too wise an 
aconomist to believe that all may be gamblers and the 
world get one . But so he would sa^ of a world of farmers 
or miners. He reckons confidently on the natural disttib- 
ution contingent on differences of bent, brains, enterpri- 
ses, and opportunity to round out humanity as a whole and 
put each man's work into his hand. And so, reckoning on 
the producers he reckons on the feambler. Foreseeing the 
flea upon seeing the dog-, Mr. Schwab is ready to think as 
well of the parasite as he does of honest Rover. (£) 

His description of Mr. Rockefeller is equally frank: 

In person, Mr. Rockefeller is a huge-boned bulk of a man^ 
like his father before him. He is not handsome, because 
he has no hair; he is not happy, because he has no stomach) 
Remember how mankind in its civilization sits ever in the 
awful money-shadow of Standard Oil — I warn you it is a 
fearsome thing to be at the mercy of one who has no stomach, 
that town and country residence of the soul. . . . 

1. Owners of America Eorcross vol. 45 p. 370 September 1908 

2. Ibid, Lewis vol. 45 p. 478 October 1908 

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Altogether the Hookefeller atmosphere Is Inimical^ re* 
pellent, alarming. An^ yet no one will look upon Mr. 
Rockefeller without feeling a kind of sadness, a sympa* 
thy for him. Mo one will envy him; he gives forth no 
impression of happiness, as does I^lr. Came,^ie, or of 
cheerful, steady conceit, as does Mr. Schwab, or of omi-* 
tented rapacity, as does Mr. Byan. Instead, he is like 
a man lost in a world strange to him, and very lonesome. (1) 

Els fairness is shown in the following bit: 

Mr. Rockefeller has provoked a vast amount of literature, 
very little of which has been eulogistic. Mo one has been 
more bitterly spoken against, more ferociously condemned. 
And yet lAiy blame him? He could no more have become that 
perilous creature, a billionaire, wanting our permission, 
than he could have stolen stars from the midnight sky. (2) 

An entirely, different tone from this half-humorous 
one of Mr. Lewis' is ,*hown in Arthur Brisbane's treatment of 
the Armours, for' the writer makes the point that the Armours 
and other kings of industry are showing the people what can be 
done and are only doing what 99-|- per cent of the people in the 
country would do if they could. He takes up a little of Ar- 
mour's way of handling the business and suggests a few reforms 
the packers might effect, ending up with a sentimental rhapsody 
on what happens to the souls of the nine million animals killed 
annually. 

Going back to his introduction, we find it a disser- 
tation on kings, ancient, and modern, with a transition which he 
calls "the forest of Industrial feudalism," in which he pokes 
fxm at Upton Sinclair's book, "The Jungle," and asserts that the 
book has cost America many hundreds of billions of dollars in 
lost European trade. He adds that, "*Ehe people through higher 

1. Owners of America Lewis vol. 45 p. 619 Mov. 1908 

2. Ibid. p. 621 Cosmopolitan 



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meat prices, are paying and will pay in full the losses 

brought upon the packers who saw their foreign trade melt 

like snow during the Theodore Roosevelt- Upton Sinclair war- 

1 
dance," 

The tone of this article is clearly brou^t out in 

the following passage: 

It should have been mentioned at the beginning of this ar- 
ticle, to prevent disappointment and waste of time in 
reading, that this is not to be the usual delightful, dar- 
ing, and dashing flogging. Mo shivering, cringing, money- 
king is to be dragged up to the magazine whipping-post and 
lashed remorselessly while all the world cries "Bravo." 

That work has been done, well done; it would be ridiculous 
to do it over again badly. It has been done by Upton Sin- 
Clair in shrill, spiritual falsetto; by Lincoln Steffens 
in grumbling, rumbling )>a8S; by Alfred Henry Lewis with 
Texan foam and fury; by Hay Stannard Baker with lawyer-like 
reportorial coolness; by Ida Tarbell with Lady Macbeth 
fury and Charlotte Corday devotion. Why do it all over 
again feebly? 

The trohble in America, in the opinion of one humble Amer- 
ican, is with American citizens themselves . Men get just 
about the trust government that they deserve. When eighty 
million of human beings, nearly all able to read, use their 
ballots about as intelligently and efficiently as a ten- 
year-old child uses his little shovel, the best advice you 
can give such people is to grow up and learn to use the 
ballot more efficiently. If the people don't want monop- 
olies they have the power to and those monopolies when they 
choose. Let them have their own refrigerator cars. (2) 

Emerson Hough presents in mild fashion the distrib- 
ution of the Swifts among the various branches of the packing 
industry, with a sketch of each member, and a tribute to their 
square dealing. He also makes the point that packers have per- 
formed a useful service in consolidating the meat service. I 
quote him in part: 

1. Owners of America Brisbane vol. 46 p. 282 February 1909 

2. Ibid. p. 286-7 



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The Packers and Their Kingdom cannot be dismissed with the 
supposition that the Armours completely control this domain. 
Equally active, equally vigilant, and equally great are the 
Swifts. It was Gustavus F. Swift, the founder of the 
Swift fortunes, who first saw the possibility of the refrig- 
erator car, and it was his energy that forced a realization 
of its imperative need in the trade. The Armours, Morris- 
es, Cudahys, and Hammonds have all been forced to use it 
today. There is warfare in the Kingdom of the Packers. 
Armour, the elder, is fighting for trade dominance with the 
Swifts, who are younger, but whose organization today helps 
to supply the dally meat for homes all over the world. (1) 

Mr. I^orcross finishes up the series with a discussion 

of E.H. Harrlman in July, 1909, and of the As tors in August. 

He quotes a characteristic speech of Mr. Harrlman' s as follows: 

"I am not a ten-per-cent man, and I want something that will 

2 
grow." He says that Mr. Harrlman "has done more to build up 

his country than any other man in his generation. Condemn 

his methods if you want to — and many of them ought to be con- 

3 
demned, yet he is a builder." "Theirs is a clean for- 

tune," he says of the As tors. 

A series in true muckraking vein is found in the fall 

of 1909, however, when an attack is made on the sugar trust in 

a series of articles entitled "The Trail of the Hunfeeap-Tax" and 

written by Mr. Horcross. The title is gained from the idea of 

imposing a duty on sugar in the tariff schedule. A prefatory 

announcement says: 

Within a period of two years the American Sugar Refining 
company has been indicted and found guilty on more than a 
score of counts for rebating and has paid fines approxima- 
ting (1550,000; has admitted defrauding the government by a 



1. Owners of America Hough vol. 46 p. 399 March 1909 

2. Ibid. Bctcross vol. 47 p. 159 July 1909 

3. Ibid. " voSL. 47 p. 162 July 1909 

4. Ibid. " vol. 47 p. 334 August 1909 Cosmopolitan 



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! 

Bystem of false weighing and has settled In part for over 
42 1 000,000 with more cases to he heard from; and has con-* 
fessed to a criminal conspiracy to throttle a competitor 
I by offering to pay ^750,000 for a discontlmiance of the 

suit of the Pennsylvania Sugar Heflnlng company against lt« 
Six of its seven directors stand indicted today for con- 
spiracy. This is in part the record of the commercial 
I methods of operation and the details of ctlmlniil^ defiance 
i of all law and moral obligation by this corporation, as 
revealed in this series of articles, are enough to maaze 
a public already made callous to tales of corporation cor- 
ruption by the revelations in the investigation of the 
Standard Oil company and other trusts, (l) 

The nature of the trust is described by ^r* Horcross 

as follows: 

As the tale unfolds it will be found that the sugar trust 
has been at least an attempted debaucher of Congress, and 
it was largely the machinations of the agents of the trust 
in ther tariff-c one true ting days of the last Cleveland ad- 
ministration that caused President Cleveland, in referring 
to the bill to stigmatize it as a "national perfidy •" The 
trust has always had its agents in law-making bodies all 
over the country; it has browbeaten the railroads into 
granting hufee rebates and utilized the advantage gained to 
crush competition; by money and otherwise it has bought up 
and destroyed the beet-sugar opposition as well as other 
competitors. iiever in the history of the country has 
there been so much cumulated evidence of commercial out- 
lawry. Compared to it the deeds of the Standard Oil com- 
pany sink into insignificance. (2) 

Mr. Norcross characterizes the sugar trust as a 
one-man company, that of Henry 0, Havemeyer, organizer and 
first president of the American.. Sugar Refining company and 
blames him for the misdeeds of the trust. He goes on to re- 
count the tale of Thomas i\ Riley who quarrelled with Have- 
meyer and squealed on the Trust. A good summary of the Trust 
is found in the following passage: 



1. Trail of the Hunger Tax Korcross vol. 47 p. 588 Oct. 1909 

2. Ibid. p. 589 CoAaopolitan 



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How to get baoi: to tlie history of the sugar trust: to fol- 
low it step by step through its upbuilding and its wide- 
spread operations; th show how it has been a constant and 
ruthless throttler of competition; how it corrupted Congress 
and created tariff schedules that enriched its officers by 
millions; how it subtly absorbed the beet-sugar industry; 
how it browbeat the railroads and forced huge rebates; how 
it sank seven millions of dollars in a fight against the 
Arbuckles before a peace was signed that may be broken any 
moment. It is the most fascinating commercial romance of 
the century, (l) 

The second article deals with the "Beet Sugar Round- 
Up" and appears in Hovember. An idea of the contents may be 
seen from the editor's note appended to it: 

In this instalment, the historj'^ of the Sugar Trust, the 
methods employed by Henry 0. Havemeyer to dominate the 
beet-sugar industry and nullify the menace of its compet- 
itors are outlined. It is significantly shown that when 
the beet-sugar campaign was most threatening a propaganda 
for the removal of the duty on Cuban sugars was engineered 
from the office of the secretary of war^ Elihu Root hold- 
ing the post at the time. The repeal of this duty would 
have badly crippled the beet-sugar men and assisted the 
trust. Mr. Havemeyer 's war on the beet-sugar men by uti- 
lizing rebates to undersell them is proved from the books 
of the company. The destruotion of the independent stove 

industry is recoimted; the gross favoritism to relatives in 
coal contracts is outlined, and the facts about the rela- 
tions between Havemeyer and Palmer are cited. As a result 
of this quarrel Palmer was forced out of the company and 
left a breach through which the government's agents entered 
to get evidence. Many of these facts have never before 
been told. They disclose a career of treachery and double- 
dealing that has proved effective in laying the "hunger- 
trail" over the whole country and taxing every breakfast- 
table in the land. (2) 

An interesting editorial pertaining to the series is 

found in Magazine Shop ?alk for Hovember. I quote from it: 

Does it make any difference to you how much a potrnd you 
paj for sugar? Doesn't it strike near heme wnen you hear 
that the gigantic and lawless corporation, which through 
its agents supplies practically all the tables in America--^ 

1. Trail of the Hunger Tax iJorcross vol. 47 p. 591 Oct. 1909 

2. Ibid. p. 713 Movember 1909 Cosmopolitan 



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yours included — with this one indispensable article of 
food has the brazenness to admit that for years it has been 
defrauding the government, stifling competition and keeping 
up prices to a point where the trail of the "Hunger Tax" is 
laid over the length and breadth of the country— demanding 
its toll, without exception, from every American home? 
Isn't it time that the facts about this giant corporation 
should be made known — how it has fooled the government by 
short- weighing and rebating to the amount of millions of 
dollars; why it has paid fines already amounting to millions 
Without making much more than a beginning toward the rest 
due from its methods of thievery and dishonesty; why six 
out of seven of its directors today stand indicted for con- 
spiracy? Isn't it about time to tell the story? We 
think SO; and in this issue we give you the second of a se- 
ries of four articles — the fact-story of this soulless 
corporation. It is an unequalled record of lawlessness. 
What is more to the point, it hits your pockets like a 
bull's eye. (l) 

A typical illustration of the sugar trust's policy 
is related by Mr. Horcross in his December article, showing 
how fraudulent weighing is accomplished. The incident is re- 
lated by one of the company checkers: 

He told of the tLtillzatlon of a hidden spring for lessin- 
ing the apparent weight of the drafts of sugar. He said 
that in the ten years he had been there he had, day in and 
day out, under the direction and with knowledge of the com- 
pany's dock superintendent, assisted in this scheme of frau- 
dulent weighing. There are seventeen scale -houses on the 
docks* Some of these scales are used more fr^que^t^y than 
others, as the cargo of each ship is weighed at the scale- 
house nearest her berth. It was shown later that niae- 
tenths of the sugar received at this refinery was weighed 
on five of the scales. Seated behind each one of the scales 
in the days of short- weighing were a government weigher and 
a checker for the company. When a iraft from the ship was 
brought Tin to the scales the government weigher would adjust 
the weights before him until a balance was secured. He 
would then announce the weight, and It would be verified by 
the checker. According to Whalley's story, whenever a loAd 
of sugar was rolled on the scales, the company's checker 
would drop his left hand down and insert a plug which commu- 
nicated with a little spring inside thw weighing apparatus, 
the result being a marked reduction* One of these holes 
was at each one of the seven scales, so that no matter on 
which scale the sugar was weighed, not a sack was weighed 
honestly. (2) 

11 Magazine Shop Talk vol. 47 p* 808 November 1909 
£. The Rebate Conspiracy Horcross vol. 48 p. 71 December 1909 
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The final instalment of the series appearing in Jan- 
uary, 1910. was a tale of the trust's trying to orush Adolph 
Segal and his Pennsylvania Sugar Refining company, whereby 
he failed and in the crash the trust was indicted by the gov- 
ernment and forced to pay sixty- two million dollars in damages. 
liorcross condludes the series thus: 

It (the trust) has been purified by fire. Whether it will 
stay purged remains to be seen. Its lesson has certainly 
been salutary enough, (l) 

A clean-up in politics and a general airing of party 
affairs marks the crusading policy of the Cosmopolitan in the 
spring of 1910. "What is 'Joe' Cannont" a fascinating sketch 

by Alfred Henry lewis is the first article of a political na- 
ture and is published in April. Cannon's great political pow- 
er is described and an arraignment made of him as a man and as 
a politician. The editorial remarks about Cannon are extreme- 
ly interesting in connection with this article and part of them 
follows: 

That the reign of terror and tyranny instituted and main- 
tained with rare cunning by Speaker Cannon, in the House 
of Representatives at Washington, is nearing its end. is 
the avowal of the politically wise. The downfall of Can- 

non will rejoice all honest Americans. He has been a men- 
ace to good government, and his passing will be the occasion 
of sincere satisfaction not only on the part of the Demo- 
crats and "^insurgent" elements in Congress, but on the part 
of every clean-minded, right-thinking citizen of the Repub- 
lic. 

At the moment of going to press the name of ex-president 
Roosevelt is being exploited as that of Cannon's possible 
successor. "Bring him back from Africa, elect him to Con- 
gress, and make him Speaker." is the cry/ What this would 

1. Tragedies of the Sugar Trust Borcross vol. 48 p. 198 

January 1910 Cosmopolitan 



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mean to Congress and the people at large is not to be dis- 
cussed at this time; but whatever happens, whoever is placed 
in the Speaker's chair, after the swift expulsion of Cannon, 
it is a plain enough fact that no one could occupy that po- 
sition who is worse fitted both by temperament and by train- 
ing and by thought, than the present incumbent, whose devi- 
ous career is pictured in the article subjoined^ (1) 

Mr. Lewis' language is equally forceful, for he says: 

Mr. Cannon has made politics pay. Hot one in one thou* 
sand does that. But Mr. Cannon from boyhood has made ev- 
erything pay. At trapping that wild beast called a dol- 
lar, he has had no superior. At taming and keeping it when 
caught, he has never been surpassed. When his income was 
smallest, he still saved one dollar out of every two* He 
bought land at five dollars an acre to sell it years later 
at one hundred dollars an acre. He broadened into street 
railroads, banks, and a score 6f similar investments. His 
money sense was infallible. He hever had a set-back { all 
his ships came home. Now he can run his rake-handle arms 
to the shoulders in his saffron hoard and count it by the 
millions* (2) 

In March preceding Mr. Lewis' article about Cannon 
appeared an editorial as a sort of question mark, to the fol- 
lowing effect: 

"Who is Joseph Gumey Cannon? Oh, yes, we all know "Uncle 
Joe,'' he of the banging gavel and tiptilted cigar. We 
know him through a thousand caricatures and cartoons, we 
know him through his whip lashing of the lower House of Con- 
gress, his supercilious, arrogant, and often childish atti- 
tude toward thin.^s that are new, that make for progress. 
But just who is this man? What is he? from what has he 
sprung, and for what does he stand? 

Is Speaker Cannon a true statesman, a man of fine accomplish- 
ments and high ideals?^ Is he a man of homely, shrewd, and 
lovable character like 'Lir. coin? His friends and cohorts 
say he is. Or is the mere cunning, self-seeking politican 
given to small tricks, petty stratagems, low language, and 
all the mental, moral, and pjiysical mannerisms of the profes- 
sional ward politician? You shall judge for yourself when 
you read the character analysis of Cannon by Alfred Henry 
Lewis which is to be published in the Cosmopolitan for next 
month. It will give you a clearer conception of just what 

1. What is "Joe" Cannon? Lewis voTI 45 p. 669 April 1510 

2. Ibid* p. 574 Cosmopolitan 



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the Speaker of the House of Hepresentatlves Is like and 
what he represents in modern politics than anything that 
has yet appeared in print, (l) 

Charles Sdward Russell comes forth in July of this 
same year with an interesting series of articles on legisla-* 
tive graft in various leading American cities. About ten 
articles appear in all, the first of six of which are written 
by him^ and the balance by various writers. Apropos of the 
series, which is entitled "What Are You t^oing to Do About It?" 
the Cosmopolitan published an editorial in its July issue by 
Brand Whitlook^ reformer, lawyer, author, and mayor of Tole- 
do, Ohio, which is called "As to Grafters." 

Ur. Vhitlock takes the stand that oorruption is not 
increasing and that the people's standards are improving. He 
believes that the people should elect their own men to repre* 
sent them and get rid of the privileged corporations. He ad* 
vocates the use of the referendum to curtail the lobbyists at 
state legislatures. 

In his first article Mr. Russell deals with "Legis- 
lative Graft and the Albany Scandal," which is a story of graft 
in the Hew York legislature and bribery — a story no more note- 
worthy than others we have discussed except that this series is 
written with the view of getting the public to act. In conclu- 
sion to this he says: 

Obviously the source of all the evil in our legislative bo- 
dies is not Bad Men nor any other kind of men, but simply 
and solely Privilege. Privilege requires more privilege 

1. Magazine Shop Talk vol. 48 p. 539 March 1910 Cosmopolitan 



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that it may make more profits* By only one way in this 
world can it attain its desire, and that is by the corrup- 
tion of public servants and the perversion of government. 
Whether that can be done by distributing money in envelopes 
or by awarding fat attorney fees or by retainers from the 
railroads or by so-called oppprtunities in stock specula- 
tion or by brokers' accounts mysteriously swelled or through 
mysterious kings of legislation or in some other way — 
what matters? By whatsoever means employed the result 
is the same. Men are corrupted, government is perverted, 
we are betrayed. 

Do we really wish to stop these evils? Then we shall have 
to cease to waste our time on individuals whose deeds are 
but the products of s^pteip, and proceed to deal with causes 
instead of results.. This generation does not remember a 
time when a scandal was not brewing in the government of 
Hew York state and when some individual was not being chased 
^etefor with hue and cry. Do we need any more of that? (1) 

In August appeared "Graft as an Expert Trade in Pitts- 
burg;" in September, "The 'Jack^Pot' iii Illinois Legislation;" 
in October, "The Man the Interests Wanted," — Senator William 
lorimer; in December, "Colorado — Hew Tricks in an Old Game;" 
and in January, "Senator Gore's Strange Bribe Story." These 

complete Mr. Hussell's part in the series, and the following 
articles appear successively under the signatures of different 
writers: "The Senatorship that Cost 1111,385 Plus," by Alfred 
Henry Lewis in June; "What San Francisco Has Done About It" 
by Edward H^ Hamilton in July; "The Shame of Ohio" by George 
Creel and Sloane Gordon in October; and "The Carnival of Cor- 
ruption in Mississippi" by George Creel in November. These ar- 
ticles are so much like others we have discussed in this paper 
that further comment would be tiresome. 

A minor muck-raking article appears by Alfred Henry 

1. What Are You:. Going to Do About It Bussell vol ^9 p. 160 

July 1910 Cosmopolitan 



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Liwis in July called "The Revolution at Washington" — with 

the sub -title: "Numerous assaults upon the old guard have made 

pertinent the question, 'Who is a Repuhlican?'" This is full 

of interesting sidelights on Congress notables — exposes no 

particular graft or people but simply comments on the changing 

character of the Congressional personnel. The keynote of the 

article appears in the following passage: 

The people are in the s&ddle. The Cannon downfall was but 
an incident. The tariff struggle in Congress is but an in- 
cident. Even such as Mr. Wiclcersham and Mr. LaPollettQ, 
Mr. Aldrich and Mr. Dolliver, Mr. Lodge and Mr. Beveridge, 
Mr. Hoot and Mr. Borah, are but incidents. The public 
hosts, with the cry, "High cost of living," are moving to 
the destruction of criminal money, and will not be with- 
stood. There is to be a new alignment, party landmarks 
which have served for forty years will be swept awav. The 
West is to step forward, the East to fall back. (1) 

.Mr. Lewis contributes an article on Hughes in the 
Kovember Cosmopolitan, entitled "Will Hughes 'Make Good?'' Can 
a Corporation Lawyer and Partisan Politician Measure Up to the 
Supreme Court Standard?" This is a verbose, expansive article 
on Hughes in all his characteristic aspects, with plentiful il- 
lustrations of the man. The writer tears Hughes to pieces not 
cruelly but playfully, so that the reader feels only contempt 
for the man. 

A discussion of the problem of desertion in the Amer-. 
ican aimy and the offer of a remedy is presented in "The Shame 
of Our Army" which was written by Bailey I^illard for the Septem- 
ber Cosmopolitan. He explains why fifty thousand eilisted men 

1. Revolution at Washington Lewis vol. 49 p. 252 July 1910 
Cosmopolitan 



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have deserted^ The article caused so much criticism and com- 
ment that In fiovembet he replied In another article entitled 
"More About 'The Shame of Our Army.'" 

"The Theft of the Panama Canal" by Wiins J. Abbott 
appeared In October and is another minor muckraklr.g article, 
dealing with the transcontinental railroads which control the 
canal zone and which are pia£inlng a greater raid. The crying 
Injustice that these railroads should control steamship traffic 
Is pointed out by the writer who urges Immediate Congressional 
action. 

An editorial called "A Remedy for Machine i'olltlcs" 
was written by A, Leo Well for the August magazine. Well was 
president of the body of citizens who cleaned up Pittsburg, 
and his remedy Includes Investigation, demonstration, publica- 
tion, and organization of politics. 

"Booze, Boodle, and Bloodshed" Is the alliterative ti- 
tle of an Interesting article which appeared In Kovember under 
the signature of Sloana Gordon and told what was the matter 
with Ohio, and Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri. It 
describes the reign of terror created by the "Wets" and "Drys," 
which was affecting the whole nation. The writer tells of the 
lynching In Newark, Ohio, In vivid fashion and then proceeds to 
discuss the question of local option and allied problems all 
through the Middle West, outlining the power of the Anti-Saloon 
league. 

The reader will have marked the gradual disappearance 



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of the Yirulent muckraking article and the substitution of gen- 
tler crusading articles, which finally lose any touch of mu»lc- 
raking whasoever. 

Various campaigns of a crusading nature were carried 
on "by the Cosmopolitan magazine after 1910, notably such as 
those against vivisection, to lower the cost of living, and 
against Mormonism, but these have no place in our discussion 
here. The muckraking writers turn their attention to construc- 
tive work instead, hence in 1911 and ^.912 we find Alfred Henry 
Lewis writing personality sketches of "^good'* men and an essay 
series entitled "Progress and Politics" written by different 
contributors. 

In our conclusion we shall present some of the real 
reasons why muckraking died out so thoroughly although the pub- 
lic may still have been interested in it. 



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Chapter IV 
AMERICAB MAGAZIBE 

The American I^Iagazlne came Into the field as an ag- 
gressive publication in October, 1906, when it changed hands 
and began a distinct career iinder the editorship of such able 
writers as Lincoln Steffens, Ray Stannard Baiter, Miss Ida Tar- 
bell, and ii'inley P. Dunne. It will be remembered that these 
writers had served McOlure's magazine long and well. 

The policy of the new magazine, especially as re- 

gatds our own particular thesis, i.e., the exposure of graft, 

is expressed adequately in the following extract from "The 

House of the Interpreter," for Kovember, 1906} 

The thing we sober Americans are trying to do is no more 
tragic than the opening up of the new street or the in- 
stallation of an electric plant. It is a job that calls 
for warm purpose, but cold language, high intentions, but 
low voices, poetical appi rations perhaps, but applied 
method^ patience, and orderliness. There will be no sud- 
den revolutionary changes if I understand the feelings 
of the people I meet. V/e shall not wake up some morn- 
ing and find the rascals out and the angels in. 

But it is evident that there is a stirring of the inter- 
nal fires among our people. The sense of justice may 
have smoldered somewhat in recent decades of great mater- 
ial striving and struggling, but it was only smoldering. 
These fires never die out. There are strange, subter- 
ranean upheavals, dotting the story of our national life — 
revolts, reprisals, small social and political outbursts. (1) 

The strength and promise of the new magazine is 

readily foreseen from the names of its contributors and edi- 

1. House of the Interpreter vol. 63 p. 109 Kovember 1906 

American l^Iagazine 



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tors. To the latter an appropriate tribute is paid in an 

editorial announcement in the pages of the October, 1906, 

magazine • Miss Tarbell is the first one commented on: 

Miss Tarbell is first of all a historian; that is, whether 
she is writing of Rockefeller or liapoieon, she must go to 
the original sources, to the fundamental documents and re- 
cords. That is the reason that her work convinces. She 
knows what was really said and done. Her pictures live 
with the vigor and truth of her own clear-cut vision of 
character and incident; her interpretation glows with moral 
conviction. Her life of Lincoln is known and loved in 
tens of thousands of homes .... 

It is a far cry from Lincoln to Rockefeller and the Stan- 
dard Oil company. If Miss Tarbell had done no other work 
in her career as a Journalist than her investigation of 
this typical case of illegal and dangerous relations between 
railroads and industrial corporations, she would deserve the 
very high place she occupies among the historians of these 
stirring times. It was not because the Standard Oil com- 
pany was rich and powerful that it was investigated; it was 
because, being the richest and most powerful, it was the 
most representative of evil conditions and made the bes$ — 
that is, the worst — example. And investigated it was, 
without fear and without haste, without malice and without 
apology. The consequences are well-known to all readers of 
the newspapers. The officers of the great monopoly have 
been called upon to plead in court and have felt impelled 
to apologize, deny, and exteniaate in public. But we have 
not heard that they have been able to contradict one of the 
statements of fact in Miss Tarbell 's extraordinary revela- 
tions in a way to diminish the force of her conclusions. (1) 

Of Lincoln Steffens, the same editorial announcement 

says that he is 

one of the ablest and most courageous politic41 journalists 
of the day. Ko matter what you may know or think of him in 
his work, you will not get Mr. Steffens right unless you know 
that he is at heart an idealist and optimist. He had a pas- 
sion for the good thing in man and movements. He has gone 
deeply into political conditions in many states; observed close- 
ly the actual government in power. nothing swerves him in try- 
ing to get at the truth of a situation, the facts of a man's 

1. Editorial Announcement vol. 62 p. 569-70 October 1906 

American 



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98 

life and career and his motives and purposes. Mr. Steffens 
has devotion to his woik and his beliefs. This leads him to 
take infinite pains in his studies and investigations^ he is 
hard to satisfy* He has justness of mind and he is tireless 
in seeking information. And it doesn^t matter how bad things 
look. He still believes that the people will make them right. 
In him perhaps more than in any of us survives the spirit of 
the abolitionist. Moreover, he is a moving and vivid writer. 
He sees closely and knows thoroughly, so the reader gets a 
living impression of what he has seen and known^ the charac- 
ters, the episodes, the dramatic scenes, and then the meaning 
of it all. (1) 

v;illiam Allen White is a name new to us in the annals 
of muck-raking, and while he, in the strictest sense, is not a 
true muck-raker, yet his articles contributed to the American 
Iilagazine during the period that we are studying perhaps justify 
his being included to some extent in these pages. Of him men- 
tion is also made, in honorable feshion, in this same announce- 
ment, quoting from Korraan Hapgood who wrote in a contemporary 
issues of Collier's about Mr. White: 

Among American writers of our day we know none characterized 
more surely by rightness and health of spirit than '.Villiam 
Allen Thite, of Emporia, Kansas. None sees the world more 
justly in its true proportions, as it is. Eone, therefore, 
is more kind, more charitable,, with gentler humor, or in more 
every-day fashion entirely ^wise. He can, with this widdom^ 
amiability, and amusement that are his, do things that stif- 
fer spirits find impossible. He can criticise with no sug- 
gestion of hostility. He can praise with no hint of par- 
tiality. In his freshness, in the openness of his manner 
and the breeziness of his words, there is much that we are 
proud to call American. (2) 

A splendid tribute is paid to Mr. Baker; 

The one man of our group who sees a story in everything is 
Ray Stannard Baker. ^ He has been called "the best reporter 
in America." That means that he has an eye which sees what 
there is in things. But he has more — he has ima|4ftation 

1. Editorial announcement vol. 62 p. 571-3 October 1906 
^c. Ibid. p. 573 American Iilagazine 



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to reconstruct vividly what he has seen, and he has unusu- 
ally lucid and picturesque story- telling power. Mr. Baker 
is one of the most fertile and versatile writers today in 
this country, for all human things interest him. He looks 
out upon the world with the sense that it is a community of 
fellow human beings and he wants to know what they are doing. 
He has a passion for studying the ways of man. 

And when Mr. Baker has seen, examined, and Judged, then you 
feel confident that you are getting a true account; he has 
a genius for cleanness; he seems to get the very color of 
the original facts and events. Besides, he is so tolerant 
and sympathetic that his fairness becomes a pervasive and 
charming quality. Lir. Baker's unquenchable curiosity, and 
his perception of what is interesting and significant, are 
certain to help in giving distinction to this magazine. (K) 

Mr. Baker is one of the most prolific writers on the 
staff, for in a study of the mack-raking articles published in 
the American Magazine during the years following the inception 
of the publication we find his name attached to many articles. 
Lincoln Steffens drops out along in 1908 and no more of his ar- 
ticles appear. Miss Tarbell makes a long study of the tariff 
her most important contribution to the magazine, which although 
diost interestingly written is scarcely legitimate material for 
this rth6siS. 

One of the first articles to appear by Steffens is 

"Hearst, the Man of Mystery," ^ich was published in Koveiaber, 

1906. The editor's note says candidly: 

This article is an examination of the fitness of Mr. Hearst 
for office, based on fundamental grounds. It considers him 
seriously as a remarkable phenomenon in public affairs, 
whom it is our duty to try to understand. His political 
and journalistic ideas are given as they are presented by 
himself and his followers, with all credit for sincerity. 
Even then our conclusions are that Mr. Hearst does not typ- 
ify the movement he represents or give reasons for hoping 
that he will be able to accomplish what he thinks he can. (2) 

Mr. Steffens writes of Mr. Hearst as follows: 



1. *;ditorial Announcement vol. 62 p. 575 October 1906 

2. Heart*, the ilan of Mystery vol. 63 p. 3 Koveraber 1906 

American Magazine ^ 

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Whether all the things that he has done were right or not; 
whether they were done from ri^it motives or wrong — • these 
are proper questions to raise* Eo matter how we may answer 
them, however, the things Mr, Hearst has done go far. toward 
showing that when he himself has ma^e up his own mind that a 
certain policy is wise or just or expedient, he goes about 
the execution of that policy with an independence, a fear- 
lessness and a will so ruthless that is is easy to see that, 
however .conservative he may be that, in actioii he is a rad- 
ical* (1) 

The article is a most effective portyayal of Hearst 

as a joumallst, politician, and representative of American 

democracy* Mr. Steffens says emphatically in conclusion: 

2 
"Mo, Mr. Hearst does not personify the new American spirit J" 

In the same issue of the magazine appears an article 
by Bay Stannard Baker, entitled "A Test of Men — the San i'ran- 
cisco Disaster ats a Barometer of Human Mature." This is a 

vivid article showing coiditions in San Francisco during and af- 
ter the earthquake and fire. Mr. Baker paints in glowing words 
the bravery, unselfishness, and cooperative spirit manifest dur- 
ing the fire and then devotes the second half of his article to 
the renewal of graft, corruption, and selfishness during the 
period of rebuilding, bringing out in particular the contrast 

between Mayor Schmitz and Abe Ruef, his boss, during the two 

3 
different periods. 

An editorial announcement in the Movember number her- 
alds the articles on the tariff which Miss Tarbell has prepared: 

But "The Tariff in Our Times" is something besides an in- 
terestirg historical narrative. Yifhether Miss Tarbell in- 

1. Hearst, the Man of Mystery Steffens vol. 63 p. 10 Mov. 1906 

2. Ibid. p. 22 

3. A Test of Men Baker vol. 63 p. 81 Movember 1906 

American 



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tended it to be so or not, it is most significant to those 
who concern themselves vdth contemporai^ problems* No one 
who thinks at all on the Trust question can fail to be 
stnick by the accounts of the simultaneous growth of the 
trusts and of the tariff schedule and to feel that there is 
some relatioii between them. V/ithout making any attempt 
to show the tariff as "the mother of trusts" or even as one 
of the special privileges vftiich are the chief cause of them, 
Mi88 Tarbell's narrative shows a connection between the two 
which at least pricks the mind. 

The narrative is quite as significant in its bearings on 
that most serious of our present national ethical concerns — 
the alliance between political and business grafters. That 
the protective tariff gives to f reedy politicians and busi- 
ness men an exceptional opportunity is quite as clear as 
that direct taxations give a fine chance to tax-pa^rs .and 
tax-collectors who are willing to sacrifice the public in- 
terest to their selfish gain./ 

Quite as thought-provoking as anything else in the narrative 
are the picturesque accounts of our handling of tariff-sche- 
dules and tariff hearings — mattiers which common sense agrees 
should be in the hands of experts ~ exploited so exclusively 
by politicians that the necessity of any other treatment has 
been almost forgotten, (l) 

Apropos of the organization and conipilation of this 

series, the editors say: 

In preparing the narrative Miss Tarbell has followed the 
method used in "Her Life of Lincoln" and her "History of 
the Standard Oil Oompany." She has ibught her material 
first hand, studying the hundreds of reports, of pamphlets, 
and of speeches that the tariff discussion has bred, fol- 
lowing from day to day the comments of the great newspapers 
on both sides and gathering from men still alive who have 
taken part in the discussions their personal reminiscences 
an* explanations. The result is a story full of color 
and vigor and freshness. It brings out bits of history 
so little known that they have the effect of unpublished 
matter, and it abounds in anecdotes and pregnant informa- 
tion. (2) 

The series began in December, 1906, and continued un- 
til June of the following year when they are wuddenly discon- 

1. Tariff in Our I'imes editorial, announcement vol. 63 p. 80 

2. Ibid. p. 80 KovBmber 1906 American iV.agazine 



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102 

tlnued* In September the editor promises a new series of 
separate studies, the first of which is to Ve the "Tariff and 
the Cost of Living," but it was some time before such a series, 
showing the methods by which the protected interests were able 
to exercise such great power in politics, appeared. 

In Hovember, 1910, three years later, another impor- 
tant series by Miss Tarbell was published, revealing various 
fuestionalbe parts of the tariff schedule, which was entitled 
"Mysteries and Cruelties of the Tariff" and ran on into 1911. 

President Roosevelt's attack upon the Standard Oil 
company is discussed and justified in a series of three arti- 
cles written by Miss Tarbell entitled "Roosevelt versus Rocke- 
feller." The first of these appeared in December, 1907, and 
the editorial comment is as follows: 

One of the chief problems of the present day is restoring 
to business that freedom of opportunity which democracy 
presupposes. It is a problem which }ihe American I^gazine 
is particularly interested and for which it eipeots to labor 
continuously. The importance of the present struggle of 
the government to break the monopolistic power of inter- 
state corporations is so great, its present suit against 
the Standard Oil company illustrates so admirably all the 
features in the problem of freeing commerce, that we have 
asked Miss Tarbell to postpone the publication of her no- 
table studies of the tariff and give to our readers her rea- 
sons for believing the great suit justifiable. These ar- 
ticles will bring Miss Tarbell' s work on the Standard Oil 
company up to date. (1) 

The first article, published in December, deals with 

the case of the "Big i'ine," in which Judge Landis fined the 

Standard Oil company 29 million dollars for receiving illegal 

1. Roosevelt vs. Rockefeller editorial announcement vol. 65 
p. 115 December 1907 American ivlagazine 



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103 
rebates from the railroads. The seoond^ appearing in Janu- 
ary, 1908, deals with the great pipe-line, system of the ocaii- 
pany, through iftiich it controls the crude oil manipulation of 
the country. The last which appeared in February deals with 
the present day marketing methods and business strategy of the 
company. 

In short, the series exposes the wo iking of the Stan- 
dard Oil company and shows how justifiable Mr. Roosevelt's at- 
tack was. Miss Tarbell points out that 1he Standard Oil con- 
cern must realize that its monopoly is coitrary to all American 
principles and must refoShn to save itself from being broken. 

The problem which the negro presents for solution to 

the American nation is discussed in all its phases by Ray Stan- 

nard Baker in an admirable series called "Following the Color 

Line^" i(bich was a feature cf the American Magazine for two 

years, beginning in April, 1907. This series was preceded by 

desultory articles on the negro problem by other writers. Of 

Mr. Baker's study, an editorial announcement for March, 1907, 

says : 

The American I^gazine seeks in the present series of arti- 
cles to set forth the real conditions of the negro South and 
Korth, always, of course, in his relationships with the 
white people, to understand every point of view aad to set 
down the facts without prejudice. .... 

Mr. Baker's articles will deal with the negro not as the 
sociologist or the statistician or the historijan sees him 
but as the Journalist sees him. They will present, not an 
argument but a view, a picture of conditions as they are to- 
day . Thes will bring'"out the feeling of both whites and 
blacks, and tell those absorbing stories of race relation- 
ships, which as specific illustrations of general conditions, 
will serve to illuminate the whole situation. To be under* 
stood life must be seen and heard ^ and it is the high func- 



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tlon of the best journalism to make its readers hear and 
see, and \)y constant interpretation of faots make them 
tmderttand, (1) 

Mr, Baker "begins his investigations in the South where 
he studies the condition of the negro "both in the oitjj^ and the 
country, starting out with a portrayal of the race riot in At- 
lanta, 6a. He shows the terrorizing results of the riot upon 
the industrious negrces and upon trade and labor conditions, and 
brings out the distinction of color in every walk of life with 
the conclusion that the clash is beginning to be an economic one. 
In successive articles he discusses the lack of educational fa- 
cilities for negro children, the drug habit which leads to crimes, 
the labor scarcity because of high wages, the classification of 
negroes into the Worthless, idle kind, the great middle class 
which does the manual work of the South, and the progressive, 
property-owning class; Southern country conditions where the 
whites insist that the negro do the manual work and keep his pro- 
per place of subordination. 

The second part of his series is a careful examina- 
tion of the position and influence of the mulatto, articles on 
negro education, on the negro in politics both South and Morth, 
on the negro in city industries where the organization of labor 
prevails, and on several other phases of race relationships* 
Naturally the articles provoked a great deal of cominent from peo- 
ple all over the country and the magazine published many of the 
letters received, 

A personality sketch of "Harriaian" the great railroad 



1. Following the tlolor Line Baker vol, 63 p, 521 Ivlarch 1907 

American Magazine 



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king, appeared in July, 1907, under the name of Edwin Lefevre* 
The magnate was analyzed as a man, and his personality, charac- 
ter, and lack of friends, and financial career described. 

A sketch of the fighting career of Francis J. Heney, 
the well-known prosecuting attorney, by Lincoln Steffens, enti- 
tled "The Making of a Fighter," w»s published in August, 1907. 
This article described how Heney prepared in Arizona for the work 
he afterwards lid in San Francisco in connection with the land 
graft exposures • The next month Steffens followed up the be- 
ginning of the land fraud revelations in "The Taming of the West," 
a detective story, featuring the investigations made by Ethan 
Allen Hitchcock, secretary of the Intetior, and Detective V^illiam 
J. Bums. This was a dramatic presentation of how Burns works 
on a case, how he forms his theory and collects evidence to sup- 
port it. 

These preliminary articles lead up to Heney *s vigorous 
prosecution of the land grafters, which is described in Steffens* 
vivid manner in successive numbers of the magazine. 

"True stories of the plots, abductions, dynamiting, and 
attempted murder that have been undertaken against those concerned 

as witnesses, lawyers, or supporters in the San Francisco Graft 

1 
Prosecution," are narrated in "They Y/ho Strike in the Dark" writ- 
ten by Y/ill Irwin, in fitting conclusion to Steffens' series, and 
appearing in the April (1909) American I-Iag-azine. Naturally this 
is a most dramatic account of the human side of the prosecution 
and ends with the tale of Honey's shooting. 

1. They Who Strike in the Dftrk Irwin vol. 67 p. 564 April 1909 
American I«Iagazine 



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An able Bummary of the article is found in tHe fol- 
lowing extract fr(»n its conclusion: 

A reversion — all this — toward barbarism? Yes, but 
not a single reversion ~ not alone in hour history of the 
last decade. I^o more barbarous than the disgraces^ the 
murders, the corruptions., which lay along the route of 
Claifc and Heinze and the Amalgamated Copper company through 
Montana, No worse than the secret work of the Western 
Federation of Miners, nor the secret work in those asso- 
ciations of mine owners who made the V/estem i?ederation 
what it is. Wherever greed sets itself above law, such 

things happen ~ the little crimes which we as a people 
can fully comprehend pointing the moral of greater crimes 
which we as a people can only dimly comprehend, so con- 
fused are we by the complexities of our new made civiliza- 
tion, (1) 

After watching with interest not only in the Amer- 
ican luagazine but in McClure's, the muck-raking career of 
Lincoln Steffens it is a little disappointing to find him 
sitting on top of the fence in neutral fashion as is the case 
in "An Apology for Graft," which was published in l^y, 1908, 
After this period, he seems to have directed his efforts in 
other fields of writing, for a close examination of the later 
numbers of the magazine fail to disclose anything of the sort 
again under his signature. 

Mr. Steffens justifies graft in this article by 

saying th^t people mean well at heart and do not realize just 

when they step off the legal side of a question. He insists 

that the temptation should be removed, and in conclusion says: 

"Deliver us from temptation." That should be the American 
political prayer, and we are coming tp it slowly, reluc- 
tantly, but aright — on our knees. Ko matter what pood 
men set out to do in politics, if their purpose is pure and 



1. They \7ho Strike ii: the i)aik Irwin vol. 67 p. 575 
April 1909 American 



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107 

they follow the fighting, bravely and honestly, wherever 
it is thickest, there they find themselves confronted by 
privileges, Heney.did, who went after bad men/ Ben Lind- 
say did, who got after the "bad" boys and girls of DenVer; 
Governor Hughes did, who so Tight only to do his duty; and 
that is where the president is coming out. All the lead- 
ers and all of us who are following them are coming to see 
that governmental privileges are temptations too great for 
human nature to resist; that the desire for them is the 
source of our political corruption. And we are dealing 
with them. In Boston they are trying one way; in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, another; in Washington, a third; everywhere 
in the United States and abroad society is dealing with 
these things. And that's right. lian has only to tackle 
a problem to solve it somehow; and it is enough, for the 
present, that we are realizing that it is indeed thin^^s, 
not alone men, that we have to deal with; that it is con- 
ditions, not solely the devil in us that makes bad men bad.(l) 

Miss Tarbell does not often descend to the single 

article or short series, but in the fall of 1908, we find a 

two-part series dealing with Chicago's great traction fight, 

entitled "How Chicago Is Finding Herself," appearing in Kovem- 

ber and December. Miss Tarbell points out that the winning 

of her fight has made Chicago the "most wonderful and inspir- 

2 
ing" city in America when it comes to developing a great mu- 
nicipal organization for taking care of its people. This se- 
ries is written in her characteristic style v^lth a wealth of 
f ac ts . 

After 1908 the tone of the expository articles in 
the American Magazine gradiially changes, taking on a more ju- 
dicial, constructive, coolly analytical tone, rather than the 
impassioned, almost vindictive, piercJing thrusts of the muck- 
raking craze. 



1. An Apology for Graft Steffens vol. 66 p. 130 Lia^ 1908 

2. How Chicago Is Finding Heraelf Tarbell vol. 67 p. '^9 

lovember 1908 American 



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This change is best exemplified in V/illiam Allen 
White's lengthy series entitled "The Old Order Changeth" 
which befan in January, 1909, and ran throughout the year and 
on into 1910 in occasional numbers* Part one is a sketch 
of the progress of mankind with quaint illustrations, wherein 
the writer shows how modern men are controlled by greed for 
material things, and discusses boss reign in government, the 
sale of special privileges, the over-emphasis of business, 
and the berinning of refoim. 

Part two is a stirring account of the secure pro- 
gress made during the past 25 years in many states, relative 
to the ballot, primar;. nominations, the control of corpora- 
tions, with illuminating facts and illustrative incidents. 
Mr. White's optimism is evident in his ccnclusion to this 
part for he maintains that broadening humanity and widening 
human love for one's fellows is the cause of j^rogress. 

Part three is a discussion of certain definite ten- 
dencies in the fight against greed and the methods of state 
control of capital; restriction, division, and prbhibition. 
In part four he ftescribes the progress in cities, dealin,^ with 
the price of good government, municipal accounting, commission 
foi^ of municipal government, municipal ownership, cost of re- 
form, etc. In part five he places the responsibility for in- 
forms and similar movements upon the growth of public opinion, 
and in part six he devotes himself to a discussion of the 
schools, which he terms the mainspring of democracy. "What 
About Our Courts?" as its title indicates is an analysis of 
our judicial system. 

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Samuel Hopkins Adams ^ a familiar writer to maga- 
zine readers, makes his first appearance in the American I^Iag- 
azine in May, 1909, when he put forth "The Indecent Stage," 
to which the editor appended the following prefatory note: 

There are times vfcen it is desirable to be frank on for- 
bidden topics. Just now the -American stage is suffering 
from a contagious plague of evil plays and exhibitions. 
That this epidemic be stopped, it is necessary for good 
people to know about it and to be stirred up to effective 
measures of quarantine and support. It is with this pur- 
pose that we publish the following article. (l) 

The author coiTiinents bitingly on various current plays 
and deplores their tone. He says America cannot afford to put 
on the kind of plajs tolerated in France where the young are 
protected from evil influences. 

On a par with Mr. White's constructive series is the 
eight- part series of Raj Stannard Baker, bearing the title of 
"The Spiritual Unrest," and dealing with the church and the 
need of practical religious teaching. This series bee:an in 
December, 1908, and the last article appeared in December of the 
following year. The first articles are an analysis of pre- 

sent conditions and the last an exposition of the remedy which 
Mr. Baker offers. 

The various titles in the series are suggestive of 
their contents: "Healing the ^ick in the Churches," a discussion 
of the new mental treatment for nervous diseases as practised 
by ministers and sympathetic doctors (December, 1908); "The liew 
Mission of the Doctor," a story of the significant effort of 
doctors to enter more deeply And vitally into the problems of 

1. The IndeneBt Stage Adams vol. 68 p. ^1 May 1909 

American 



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htiman life; to extend the influence of a great hospital into 
the homes of the patients, and to establish social service de- 
partments in connection with the hospitals (January, 1909); 
"The Case against Trinity/' an indictment of the richest church 
in America, where religion and earnestness in the church are 
paralyzed by wealth and tradition (i^Iay, 1909); "The GodlesB- 
ness of Mew .York/' wherein the writer says the churches are 
not reaching the people because they are not emphasizing Christ 
enougji. I.Ir, Baker says New York is overchurched but under- 
worked* "Human touch, not money, is required. There must 
be personal sacrifice* "(June, 1909); "Lift Lien from the Gut- 
ter, or. Remove the Gutter? V/hich?" under which vivid title 
the writer asserts that the church has no messsr^e for the vi- 
tal problems of the poor and perini.es among the rich from a 
different sort of superficiality* Lien are not attracted to 
the church because they are never asked to do anything heroic, 
or anything really well worth doing, he says. (July, 1909); 
"The iaith of the Unchurched," a story of the Hudson Guild in 
Mew York which is a self-governing club for boys and ]9rirls, 
men and women. Baker says "The tiew faith of the unchurched 

is a faith in people, in the coming of the kingdom of heaven 

1 
on earth." (September, 1909); "The Disintegration of the Jews," 

showing how the Jews are drifting away from the old faith just 
as the Christians are and becoming interested in the socializa- 
tion of religion. (October, 1909); "A Vision of the Ivew Chris- 
tianity," in which the writer is impressed by the "utter con- 



la Faith of the Unchurched Baker vol. 68 p. 449 3ept^ 1909, 

American 

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fusion of counsel among- church leaders themselves*" This 

article is an exposition of Dr. \7alter Eauschenbusch's book: 

"Christianity and the Social Crisis." (December, 1909). 

Ivlr. Baker summarizes the book in this fashion: 

The essence of Professor Rauschenbusch's message is that 
religion has not one, but two functions to perform. 

There are two great entities in hum^n life, — the human 
soul and the human race -- and religion is to save both. 
The soul is to seek righteousness and eternal life; the 
race is to seek rigltteousness and 1he kingdom of God.(£) 

In conclusion Ur. Baker says that the church has 
reached a stage in its development where it is fit and free 
for a new social mission end a new evangelism. 

"Hill vs. Harriman" is an intensely interesting nar- 
rative about the fight between the two railroad magnates, writ- 
ten in true fiprhting terms, by Georg^e H. Gushing, which was pub- 
lished In September, ,1909. It is the story of the ten-jears* 
struggle for railroad supremacy in the 'Vest and the writer con- 
cludes: 

The Hill-Iiarriman feud in the V;est has gained for neither 
much of anything but additional responsibility, but has 
meant the creation of a new commercial hope for the western 
people. (3) 

Mr. Gushing has summed up the two men aptly: 

Ilill has worked in the tomorrow of things; Harriman, today. 
Hill has won bj. projecting an idea ahead cf him and working 
up to it; Harriinan thinks in present profit and crashes 
through opposition with the weight of his financial support. 
Hill's is the success of brain; Harriman's of money and or- 
ganization. (^) 

ilore truly muck-raking than much of the n-iaterial we 

l.-'saith of the Unchurched Baker vol. 68 p. 177 December '09 

2. A Vision of Hew Christianity Baker vol. 69 p. 180 Dec. '09 

3. Hill vs. Harriman vol. 68 p. 429 Sept. 1909 Gushing 

4. Ibid. p. 428 American Magazine 



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have just been discussing is the series entitled "Barbarous 
Mexico" by John Kenneth Turner, which began in October, 1909, 
and ran for about a year* Such a horrifying group of arti- 
cles was getting rare in most magazines, and is comparable to 
the rubber slavery agitation which was taken up in later jears 
in regard to the Congo. 

The articles dealt with the important facts about 
despotism and slavery in Mexico, as gathered by the writer?s 
personal experiences during a jear and half spent in study and 
investigation. The editorial introduction says in part: 

It is a government of the few for the few, with a big stand- 
ing aimy to back them* Those at Ihe top have millions and 
are growing richer; the middle classes are suppressed, dis- 
contented, and getting poorer; the lower classes are down 
near the starvation limit* (l) 

"The Slaves of the Yucatan^' is the first article to 

appear, and tlie writer says in his introduction: 

The real Mexico I found to be a country with a written con- 
stitution and written laws as fair and democratic as our 
own, but with neither constitution nor laws in operation* 
Mexico is a country without political freedom, with freedom 
of speech, without a free press, without a free ballot, 
without a jury system, without political parties, without 
any of our cherished guaranties of life, liberty?, and the 
pursuit of happiness. It is a land where there has been 
no contest for the office of president for more than a gen- 
eration, where the executive rules all things b^^ means of a 
standing army, where political offices are sold for a fixed 
price, where the pi^blic school system in vast countrj^ dis- 
tricts is abolished because the government needs the money. 
I found Mexico to be a land where the people are poor be- 
cause they have no rights, where peonage is 1he rule for 
the great mass and where actual chattel slaveyy obtains for 
hundreds of thousands. i'inally I found that the people do 
not idolize their president, that the tide of opposition 
dammed and held back as it has been by aimy and secret po- 
lice, is rising to a height where it must shortly overflow 
the dam. Mexicans of all classes and Affiliations agree 
that their country is hurrying toward a general revolution 

1. Barbarous Mexico editorial introduction vol* 66 p. 523 
October 1909 American 



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in favor of demooracy; if not a revolution in the time of 
Diaz, for Diaz is old and is soon expected to pass, then a 
revolution after Diaz. (1) 

Turner next turned his steps toward the Yaqui Indians 

of Sonora, who were deported to Yucatan and made slaves. Their 

treatment is shown in the following account of a flogging: 

Every eye was riveted tight upon that scene in the uncertain 
dimness of early morning — the giant Chinaman, bending 
slightly {forward now, the naked body upon his shoulders, 
the long, uneven, livid welt, the deliberate, the agonizing- 
ly deliberate ma jocol . the admin is trad or , watch in hand, 
nodding indorsement, the grinning mayordomo , the absorbed 
cat^paces . All held their breath for the second blow. I 
held toy breath with the rest held for ages, until I thought 
the rope would never fall, And not until it was all over 
did I know that in order to multiply the torture, six se- 
conds were allowed to intervene between each stroke. (2) 

The contract slaves and horrible tales of their treat- 
ment in the Valle llacional are discussed in the next article 
of the series. Of them Mr.Tumer writes: 

Just as in Yucatan, the slavery of Valle Kacional is large- 
ly peonage, or labor for debt, carried to the extreme, al- 
though outwardl;y it takes a slightly different form, that 
of contract labor. A portion of tje laborers are convicts 
or those accused of crime. The origin of the conditions 
of Valle Kacional was undoubtedly contract labor. The 
planters needed laborers. They went to the expense of im- 
porting laborers with the understanding that the laborers 
would stay on their jobs for a given time.. Some laborers 
tried to jump their contracts and the planters used force 
to compel them to stay. The advance money and the cost of 
transportation was looked upon as a debt which the laborer 
could be compelled to work out. Prom this it was onlj a 
step to so ordering the conditions of labor that the labor- 
er could under no circumstances ever hope to get free. In 
time Valle Kacional became a word of horror with the work- 
ing people of Liexico. They refused to go for any price. 
So the planters felt compelled to tell them they were going 
to take them somewhere else. It reqidired only a little 
further deceit to play the workman false all around, to 
formulate a contract not to be carried out, but wliich was 
merely a pretense to get the laborer into the toils. Fi- 
nally, from this it was only a step to forming a business 
partnership with the government, or at least certain offi- 
cials of the government, wherebj' police power should be put 



1. Barbarous Llexico Turner vol. 68 p. 525 October 1909 

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into the hands of the planters to help them carry on a 
traffic in slaves, (l) 

This would seem to mark the end of Mr. Turner's part 
in the series, although othet articles on conditions in Mex- 
ico by different men were published. 

In January, 1910, documents and communications sent 
to the editor of the American Llagazine were published under 
the title "Moving Pictures of ilexico in Ferment," and in Feb- 
ruary Herman Whi taker wrote an article on "The Rubber Slavery 
of the Mexican Tropics," in which liie most horrible incidents 
about the treatment of the peons are related. Mr. Whi taker 
puts the blame on the stocliholders in tlie rubber companies who 
are ignorant of conditions on the plantations and of the Mex- 
ican government. 

"Three Months in Peonage" is the story of a young 

German who fell into the hands of the contractors and was in 

slavery for a few months. The white man was treated with 

more respect than the Mexicans, however, for he was "white."" 

'Still another viewpoint about conditions is related 

in "Personal Observations of Two Englishmen upon Slavery in 

Yucatan,'' written by Channing Arnold and i'rederick J. Tabor, 

who wrote a travel book called "The American Egypt." They had 

gone to Mexico to explore the remains of Mayan architecture and 

sculp tijre in Yucatan but were so stirred by the condition of 

the people there that they not only expressed their indignation 

to President Diaz in a formal letter of protest, but also in- 

1. Barbarous Mexico Turner vol. 69 p. 252 December 1909 

American 



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oojrporated their impressions in articles and their book. 

Although the articles continued to appear spasmodi- 
cally for a few months after this, they are really a repeti- 
tion of horrible facts about conditions prevalent in various 
parts of Ivlexico. 

Turning from foreign turmoil, we find political in- 
surgency rampant in America, if we are duly impressed by Eay 
Stannard Baker's series of political articles, the first of 
which appeared in February, 1910, and was entitled "Is the I'-^e- 
publican Party Breaking Up^" This article shows keen insight 
into the political problems of the daj and describes the In- 
surgent movement featuring its causes, growth, leaders, and 
future. Part of his concluding remarks are quoted: 

It is this continued aggression of cap i ta 1 — and no one 
imagines that these powerful aien of money will give up 
their advantages lightly any more than the old slave-hold- 
ers gave up theirs -- that is driving the Insurgents to 
closer organization . • . The issue is: Shall property rule, 
or shall the people rule? And no one can tell how far 
the fortunes of v;ar may carry the antagonists. (1) 

"Is the East Also Insurgent? Signs of Revolt in 
Republican Strongholds" is the title of the second of the series, 
appearing -in March. This is much the same as the preceding ar- 
ticle, outlining conditions in the ?-*ast and showing the revolt 
of the progressives apainst political domination. Baker sa^ s 
that the three great questions in the Kast as well as in the 
West are: first, the regulation of corporations and the effort 
to prevent political domination by monied interests; second, 
taxation; the effort to make corporations and monied interests 

1. Is the iiepublican Party Breaking Up? • vol. 69 p. ^48 Baker 

Febr-uary 1910 American 



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bear their honest share of the taxes; and third, the change 
of political niachinery to meet the conditions of a new age; the 
effott to secure direct primaries, direct legislation, direct 
vote for U.S. senators, new charters for cities, etc* He 
makes the point that the movement is not sectional, and proph* 
esies a new party alignment. Conservative vs# Progressive. 

In th6 thltd of his series. Baker takes up Roosevelt, 
who has ocxnpleted his presidential administration and gone to 
Africa on a hunting expedition, in "The Impending Hoosevelt." 
This is an expansive article, copiously illustrated with char- 
acteristic poses on the ex-president and his dynamic qualities, 
in which the writer quotes various prominent men on Roosevelt 
and calls him a "political publicist," which is a neat terra, 
to say the least. He says Roosevelt is still the real leader 
of the Insurgents and sums him up as follows: 

Roosevelt's strength was as a preacher and executive. As 
a police commissioner, as a soldier, as a governor, as a 
president, he was ever exhorting, conimanding, executing, en- 
forcing. (1) 

As for the future and President Taft's part in it. 

Baker predicts: 

The new leadership, if it is to take the country with it, 
must go to the root of things. V/hile the people want 
leadership, more and more they must and will know where 
and how far their leaders ere going. Thus when Roosevelt 
returns he will find that public opinion has been i«.pldly 
advancing since he went away. Whether he can or will 
fulfill the expectations of the people remains yet to be 
seen. (2) 

Similar articles, "Y/hat About the Democratic Party?" 

(June, 1910), "The :.leasure of Taft," (July, 1910), ^'An Aocoxint 

n Impending Roosevelt Baker vol. 69 p. 7^4 April 1910 
2. Ibid. p. 744 American 



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of the New Program and Leadership of the Progresslyee In the 
West," (Hovember, 1910), and" the: Meaning of Ineurgenoy," (May, 
1911), are also inoluded in this series, the general title for 
whioh is "On the Political Piring-Line^" 

Baker's artioles, as may be readily seen from the 
above have been shading away almost imperoeptibly from the muck- 
raking type and becoming analytical ezaminations of various pub- 
lic problems. In April, 1911, he sponsors"Sie Thin Crust of 
Civilisation — a Study of the Liquor Traffic in a Modezn Amer- 
ican City,** which in its exposure of the saloon evil is more a 
muckraking article than his others* 

A most interesting dissection of Senator Aidrioh of 
Ghode Island, showing deep and sympathetic insight into his 
character and explaining him as a natural product of his envir- 
onment, is embodied in an article written by Edwin Lefevre for 
the April (1910) American, entitled "Aidrioh, 'General Manager 
of the United.States**" The writer oalls Aidrich the "subli- 
mation of intelligent trading," and says: "He takes, but also 

he gives, and moreover knows that he must give. In brief, he 

1 
never hogs it." 

He casts further enlightenment on the character of 
this prominent man by quoting a saying of Aidrich: "Success is 
gamed by knowledge of htuaan nature and knowledge of oandltlohs," 
and defines Aldrloh'c driving motive as follows: "His riding 
PisBlon Is his Joy In thinking, his intense desire to Tise h^g 

1. Aldrloh. 'Beneral Manager of the U.S." Lefevre vol. 69 

p. 626 April 1910 

2. Ibid, p. 6£7 Amerloan 



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1 
mind *- the mind that God gave him«" 

In oonolxLSion he says: **He is^ heyond question, the 
most interesting personality in public life today — not alone 
for what he is, hut for what, with his extraordinary mind, he 
might have been with a different environment in his formative 
period. He may be the last of his type, for his type oan 
halt, for a time the progress of humanity toward real brother- 
hood by sheer weight of mind and adroit utilisation of self-* 
interest. And the influence of such men on the community 
is always proportionate to their mental capacity rather than 
to the capacity for self- obliteration in the services of their 
fellows." 

**The Great Express Monopoly" by Albert V. Atwood, 
which ran in ihe February, March, and April numbers of the mag- 
asine, in 1911, is a series in exposure of the express compa- 
nies with most illuminating facts. The first article is en- 
titled "Where the Money Comes From," and is a learned discus- 
sion of the origin, development, and methods employed by the 
express coiopanies; the Adams, American, Wells Fargo, and the 
United States. 

Fart of the writer's concluding remarks raises a 

natural query in the mind of the reader: 

The question nattirally arises as to how the express companies 
have been able to carry on for so many years such a perfect 
system of extracting money from the public without being 
seriously molested. The answer involves a kn«feledge of the 
relations between the railroads and the express companies; 

1. Aldrioh Lefevre vol. %9 p. 629 April 1910 

2. Ibid. p. 632 American Magasine 



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aiid a knowledge of the complete monopoly that ezlsts in the 
express business — a monopoly made possible only because 
of these very relations* (1) 

In March the second article under the title "Seats of 
the Mig^ty^^ appeared, showing kow the Adams snd American express 
companies dominated the whole transportatiei^ system of the north- 
east and exercise great power in other sections of the country* 
Mr* Lefevre tells how the monopoly was established, and main- 
tained, and how its beneficiaries are the same men who profit 
through the railroads* ""Might Makes Bight" is the third and 
last, the story of the U*S* Express company and its goyemment 
contract* 

Bow that the parcel post system in the United States 
mails has been established, the great power of the express compa- 
nies has been broken* naturally they had fought its installation 
every inch of the way* 

A series of articles on the unjust system of taxation 
in force in this country is the next great project of the American 
Magazine, and this new subject is undertaken by a writer new to 
its pages, Albert Jay Sock* These articles like others we have 
recently discussed are only quasi-muckraking in character, but 
they seem worthy of mention in slight degree, at least, because 
they expose evils and offer constructive measures* This series 
began in December of 1910 and ran until the middle of the next 
summer* Fart of them deal with the taxation system in America 
and part of them with the Canadian methods, comparing the two* 

1* The Great Express Monopoly Atwood vol* 71 p* 487 JS'ebruary 
1911 American 

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120 

Gradually we find fewer and fewer truly muok-raklng 

artiolee and a search of the numbers of the American Uiagatlne 

during 1911 reveals such scattering, semi-ezposing articles as 

"Investigation of the Steel Corporation by Itself/* (which is 

more analytical than muck* rale ing ) , more on the race question. 

La toilette's autobiography, etc. Soon even these half-hearted 

attempts disappear, the reason for which is best seen in the 

following quotation from ''She Brass Chedc*" by Upton Sinclair: 

I have told about several of the magazines which ocnsented 
to **be good*** I have shown the pitiful plight of the Amer- 
ican, and the miserable piffle they are publishigg* And 
what is the meaning of it? The meaning was given in an 
item published in the "Hew York Press" early in 1911, when 
the American Magazine was taken over by the Crowell Publish- 
ing company. The Press stated that this concern was con- 
trolled by Thomas W» Lament, of J»P« Morgan and company, 
and declared the American will do no more muckraking. In 
answer, the American in its next issue made a statement, 
haughtily announcing that the same editors, John S. Phillips, 
Bay Stannard Baker, Ida Tarbell, and Finley Peter Dunne, 
were remaining in charge, and that "the policy of the mag* 
azine will be unchanged." To a discussion of this, my own 
language is inadequate; I have to employ the vocabularly of 
my son, a student in high school: "The peer boobs!" 

Four years these editors stuck it. out, and theji they quit, 
and a couple of young fellows who had been their office 
clerks are now editors of the American Magazine which boaAts 
a million circulation, and fifty^eight thousand lines of ad- 
vertising per monthf flow as I write, I learn that this 
Crowell Publishing company has purchased "Collier' 8"and we 
shall see the same thing happening to our "National Weekly." (1) 

There may have been other reasons for the swift dis- 
appearance of muck-raking articles in all the magazines, but 
they will be discussed in the coaclusion to this thesis* 



1. The Brass Check Sinclair p.2S3 1920 

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Oonolusion 

Nearly all of the magazines were quick to realize the 
great possibilities of muolc-* raking as a means of creating popu- 
lar interest in the magazine and of building up circulation^ 
and many of them rode the hobby hard and fast for seyeral years* 
Whateyer may haye been the yarious reasons why they took up the 
'^literature of exposure'' howeyer^ there is uniformly one impor-* 
tant reason why they were forced to abandon the policy. Some 
writers yeil the reason in a kindly mist^ as I shall soon show^ 
but others tear away all coyering and reyeal the cringing edi- 
torial form on its knees before the "system.'' 

The kindlier, more widely accepted yiew is pexhaps 

best illustrated in the following passage: 

As to what has come to be known as "muckraking that some-* 
what peculiar deyelopment, growing out of preajlent condi- 
tions of American life, it has done much for the pppular 
magazine publisher. ?or the growth of the magazine it 
was fortunate that there was in American social and polit- 
ical life much corruption and much need of reform. In the 
early 90* s of the last century the public was Just becom- 
ing aware of the iniquities in eyery line of endeayor; was 
Just becoming really curious and ''ripe'* to enjoy the ixpo- 
sure of corruption. This was the opportunity for the 
magazine to get a start. The Lawson series in Eyerybody's 
and the early sensfttion&l articles in HcOlure's led the way. 
The other low-priced magazines were quick to follow. By 
1906 the names of the chief muck-rakers were almost as 
well known in eyery town that saw magazines at all as the 
names of Morgan and Rockefeller. 

But like many another noyelty, "Jaock- raking" has suffered 
somewhat of a reyerse in the last two or three years. We 



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seldom see today the extreme type of sensational ar^lole 
' which a few years ago raised the ciroulation of a publication 
perhaps 50^000 in a month. A magazine article of the bold 
recklessness of Lincoln Steffens* "^Philadelphia^ Corrupt 
and Contented^ ** is a rarity now. 

For some years the public flairly reyelled in the ** literature 
of exposure.*^ It saw the word "reform** on eyery side^ and 
reform has become so common that it has almost tired of the 
word. The public needed a popular leader like President 
Boosevelt to delirer his warning to "the man with the muck- 
rake" in Aprils 1906. That speech^ with the publicity it 
receiyed^ really marked the beginning of the dekllne of 
"muck-raking/ althou^ it is by no means dead today. (1) 

The increase in second class postal rates and the 
denying of oredit to magazines haye been construed by some to 
show pressure exerted by the monied interests. These mea- 
sures made magazine consolidation necessary in order to main- 
tain mere existence. 

The approximate truth in regard to the dttdline of 
muck-raking may be reached most accurately^ in our opinion^ 
by oDBbining the yarious yiews and assuming that the noyelty 
of muck-raking gradually lessened and that the pressure of the 
adyertisers became too great for the magazines to keep up their 
policy of exposure. It is true that public interest in any 
one subject is bound to wane« all the more if the subject be one 
which is exhausting emotionally. The "literature of exposure" 
stirred up much yiolent agitation which resulted in many permaa- 
ent reforms »hehce the need for it grew less as time went on. 
As the reforms were effected the magazines most naturftlly turned 
to a construotiye yiew of conditions. 



l.ITinabuck,W«L, The Development of the American Popular Magazine, 
B.A.Thesis, University of Wisconsin 1911, 

P I M I S 



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Appendix 

In Tiew of the faot that the preyious study has been 
entirely oonfined to a study of eon temporary material^ it is 
interesting to note the Tiew of a later writer, who has expressed 
himself most Tigorously in regard to the decline of muck- raking » 
i.e.^ Upton Sinclair who published ''The Brass Check," an expo- 
sure of modern Joumalisib, in 1920« 

I shall quote some interesting excerpts from him ~ 
the first being apropos of the fact that wide-awake men in Jour- 
nalism **now and then yield to the temptation to get rich by tell- 

1 
ing the truth." 

The whole history of the American magasine-world is summed 
up in that formula* Some fifteen years ago our magazine 
publishers made the discovery of this unworked gold mine: 
McClure's, Success, Ererybody's, the American, Han|) ton's, 
Peterson's, the Metropolitan, even the staid and dignified 
Century Jumped in to woric this mine. Their circulation be- 
gan to go up — a hundred thousand increase a month was not 
unknown in those days of popular delirium. Magazine pub- 
lication became what it had neyer before been in American 
history, and what it had never been since — a competitive 
Industry, instead of a camouflaged propaganda^ Is it not 
a complete vindication of my thesis, that in a couple of 
years half a dozen magazines were able to build up half a 
million circulation, by no other means whatever than tell- 
ing what the newspapers were fwfusing to tell? And is it 
not a proof of the pitiful helplessness of the public that 
they still go on reading these same magazines, in spite of 
the fact that they have been bought up by the "interests," 
and are filled with what one of their "kept" editors des- 
cribed to me, in a voice of unutterable loathing, as "slush 
for the women*" 

For, of course, the industrial autocracy very quickly awa- 
kened to the peril of these "muck-raking" magazines, and 

1. Brass Check Sinclair p. 229 1920 



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Appendix - b 

set to wvrk to put oat the fire. Sone magazines were of« 
ferecL millions and sold out. Those that refused to sell 
out had their advertising trinmed dona, their bank-loans 
called, their stockholders intimidated — • 'vitil finally, 
in one way or another, they consented to "be good," (l) 

Mr. Sinclair goes on to tell idiat happened to indivi- 
dual magazines who persisted in their po!).ioy of muok- raking. I 
have already quoted him on the American Magazine, and I shall 
Cite him about the others that I have taken up: 

In the same tragic way, my old friend Bldgway, who published 
the "Oondemned Meat Industry," is out of Everybody's, and a 
new and wholly "tame" staff is in charge, acceptable to the 
Butterick Publishing ooapany. In the same way S.S. McOlurc 
was turned out of his magazine, which once published Ida 
Tarbell's exposure of Standard Oil, and now published the 
solemn futilities of Cleveland Moffett, and anti-Socialist 
propaganda by the unspeakable Sewell Dwlght Hlllis. (2) 

Apropos of the advertising boycott by Ihe big inter- 
ests upon "muckraking" magazines, he writes: 

I had an opportunity to watch, from ^e inside, the operation 
of this advertising boycott, in the case of my article, the 
"Condemned Meat Industry." Many pages of advertising were 
withdrawn from Everybody's Magazine — not merely advertise- 
ment of hams and lard, but of fertilizers, soaps, and rail- 
ways. Lawson several times tried to publish the names of 
these boycotting advertisers, but Everybody's would not let 
him. Everybody's possibly rell^cted that it might not keep 
up this muck-raking business always; when it had secured 
enou^ readers, it might let down and become respectable, 
and then all the big advertisers would come back to it — as 
they have done* 

The few men who really did mean business knew that Xte ad- 
vertisers would never come back to them, so 1hey fou^t the 
fight through to a finish — their own finish. (3) 

Mr. Sinclair says of those magazines which submitted 

to the advertising pressure that they "have survived, as a wonan 

without virtue, as a man without honor, of whom his friends say 

4 
that he would better have died." 

1. The £rass Check Sinclair p. 229-230 

2. Ibid, p/.233 

3. Ibid. p. 291 

4. Ibid. p. 296 C"r^r^rs]o 

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BIBLIOOBIIHY 

11IERICA5 lUQAZniE Hovember 1906 to Fabroary 1911 
TOlumes 62 to 71 

OOSUOPOLITAH lUGAZIKE Sorember 1901 to July 1910 
TOltmes ZS to 49 

E7ERlffiOI)7*S UkQAZJM July 1904 to May 1906 
volumes 11 to 14 

MoCLUISSS UiGAZIBE Ootober 1902 to April 1906 
TOlumes 19 to £6 

MoOIQBI, S,S« Autobiography 

BIBABUOE, W,L« Thesis 1911 Unirersity of Wisoonsln 

SINCLAIR, Upton The Brass Cheok 1921 

ROOSEVELT, Theodore The Rooserelt Policy vol. II 

Bew Toxk 1908 

Current Literature Publidilng Company 



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ProfesBor of Jo 



May 10, 1921 



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AlOiailbAMI 




B89090116849A 



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